It is well known that the quality of the stool and the frequency of bowel movements in infants cause a lot of trouble and anxiety to parents. Chair in infants is one of the problematic issues not only because of the feeding with artificial mixtures that has been widespread in recent decades, but also due to the peculiarities of the functioning and structure of the infant’s gastrointestinal tract.
Stomach child up to a year has a poorly developed bottom, and the digestive system as a whole is still not fully formed (which is why the baby often spits up). From the moment of birth, the salivary glands of the child still produce little saliva. The composition of saliva includes the enzyme ptyalin, which helps break down carbohydrates. And the composition of the gastric juice of the baby includes enzymes that break down fats (lipase), proteins (pepsin, cathepsin), decomposing carbohydrates (amylase, sucrase, lactase, maltase), as well as rennet enzyme chymosin, which forms rennet. The amount of hydrochloric acid in the gastric juice of a baby is small (increases with the growth and development of the child).
Child up to one year old She often experiences pain in the stomach and colic due to the constantly present fermentation process, which supplements the breakdown of food by enzymes, as a result of which gases accumulate in the baby’s intestines.
Chair in infants, being on natural feeding, has a pasty consistency of bright yellow color with a sour odor.
From birth, the baby’s digestive system is almost sterile, but in the first few hours the baby’s intestines gradually begin to be colonized with microflora, which produce the necessary vitamins and participate in the digestion of food. Breast milk contains a sufficient number of protective components that suppress opportunistic microflora and promote the development of beneficial microflora, which prevents the activity of pathogenic bacteria.
Chair in infants, being on artificial feeding, has pale yellow color, more dense consistence and an unpleasant smell.
If the feces in infants has a green color and a watery texture with foam, then there is likely to be a so-called imbalance of the front and rear milk. To fix this problem, let the baby empty the chest completely before shifting to another. In this case, the baby will receive a sufficient portion of fat "back" milk, which is easier to digest and digest (as opposed to lactose-rich "front" milk).
Another common problem in babies that can appear at 5-6 months from the moment of birth is a relatively rare bowel movement (bowel movement). Many parents mistakenly believe that baby has constipation and begin to intensively treat the crumbs.
The fact is that during this period the weakening colostrum component is almost completely gone from the mother's milk and the baby rarely poops. At 6 months of age, the baby’s body finds out how much feces can accumulate in it before defecation. During this period, the baby may not even crap for a whole week. But you should not worry if the child himself does not show anxiety. After some time, the process of defecation in infants will recover with the usual frequency. If a baby has constipation a long time, the baby does not willingly eat and his behavior has changed markedly, you should consult a pediatric gastroenterologist for consultation.
Immediately after birth, the first one appears. chair in infantswhich is a homogeneous, odorless dark green texture and is called meconium. Meconium consists of desquamated intestinal epithelium, secretion of the digestive glands and amniotic fluid swallowed by the baby. Meconium is excreted within 3 days from the moment of birth, which is initially sterile, and then bacteria appear in it that form the intestinal microflora.
Gradually, during the week, meconium is replaced by feces. The feces of breastfed babies have a pasty consistency with a bright yellow color. If the baby has diarrhea (diarrhea) and it is reluctant to take breast milk, you should seek help from a pediatric gastroenterologist.
Mucus in feces in infants in the first months from the moment of birth - normal. Due to an insufficient amount of lactase (an enzyme that breaks down milk sugar lactose), the baby’s stools may be frothy, but for most babies this phenomenon disappears after a few months.
The frequency of stool in an infant is very individual, but in the first 2 months after birth, the baby usually poops after each feeding. Then the infant's digestive system adapts, the intestinal microflora normalizes and the stool frequency decreases to 3-4 times a day, and after 6 months - to 2-3 times a day.
If a child up to a year behaves restlessly, screams, has legs, his stomach swells, then most likely there are gases in the intestines and it is necessary to help the baby to get rid of them, causing a bowel movement to irritate the end section of the rectum or give an enema. To do this, type in a small syringe (about 50 ml) with a soft tip of warm boiled water and make an enema. Pre-lay the baby on your left side and slightly bend his legs. Do not forget to release air from the syringe before the enema (apply pressure until water appears).
Problems with the chair in infants, in case of which you need to contact the pediatric gastroenterologist:
1. Infant diarrhea (diarrhea) and the stool is frothy, without admixture of mucus, with an unpleasant sour smell. Perhaps the baby has lactase deficiency,
2. In infants rare stools with dark color of feces. At the same time, the baby has a good appetite, he eagerly sucks the breast, but does not gain enough weight. The specialist will do the control weighing and the necessary inspection - it is possible that the child needs additional feeding due to insufficient amounts of mother's milk for the body,
3. Infant diarrhea with a significant admixture of mucus. The child becomes moody and restless. It is necessary to conduct an examination - it is possible that the baby has dysbacteriosis,
4. Infant diarrhea (up to 10-12 times a day) green with admixture of blood and mucus, accompanied by vomiting and high temperature are characteristic signs of an intestinal infection.
Basic concepts related to newborn stool
The primary chair in infants has a certain difference from those feces that parents will see throughout his later life. In medicine, it is called meconium and usually looks like a stretching sticky green mass (sometimes the color may even be closer to black). Meconium comes out in the first 2-3 days of the baby's life. Often, it causes panic in an inexperienced mother, who begins to suggest that not everything is in order with her child. In fact, it is a waste product of the baby in the womb, because there he also eats only through the umbilical cord, sometimes swallowing the amniotic fluid. In the future, the chair in newborns is normalized and takes on the usual form.
What color should be the chair of the newborn?
Parents need to clearly remember that the type of baby feces can change very often. First of all, the color of the stool in newborns depends on nutrition, that is, the child is artificially or naturally fed. Secondly, from the work of the organs of its digestive system and their development. Thirdly, on whether the peanut takes any medications. As you can see, there are a lot of factors, and therefore it is not necessary for parents to immediately raise panic at the sight of an unusual chair in their child. It is necessary to analyze all the above factors and draw the appropriate conclusions. Of course, there are some rules regarding the color of fecal masses in newborns. They can be yellow, light brown, greenish. Yellow stool in a newborn is the most common color, which informs concerned parents about the normal functioning of the gastrointestinal tract of their child. A greenish tint indicates a large amount of swallowed air, overeating, etc. But what should be the stool of a newborn in color, it becomes clear only after a few weeks.
The consistency of the chair in the newborn
What should be the stool of a newborn according to the consistency is hard to say right away. After all, there are a lot of reasons for changing it:
- If, for example, the baby does not finish eating and sucks only the “front” milk from the mother’s breast, then the consistency of his feces is usually liquid and even foam may appear.
- Kashitseobraznye fecal masses usually indicate the well-being of the baby, the good work of his digestive tract. Sometimes they may even contain patches of curd mass - this is coagulated mother's milk.
- Tight fecal masses, which come out with difficulty, greatly disturb the child, they say, and high fat content of breast milk and the need to feed the toddler with plain water.
Stool frequency in the newborn
This is an equally important question, because it is on this that the calmness of the child and the parents depends. How many times should a newborn's stool occur per day? It is hard to give an unequivocal answer, because first of all you need to touch upon the question of nutrition: is it artificial or natural. If we are talking about the first, then it is considered that the child should defecate after each feeding. That is, if in the first months of life he eats about every 2-3 hours (we do not take into account the night, as some babies sleep all night time almost from birth), then on average it turns out 7-8 times a day a newborn should have . Although the option once a day is also quite normal. If it is said about breastfeeding, then everything is much more complicated. Each mother’s milk is individual: it can be fat or not very good, well digested by a specific baby or not at all. Therefore, the frequency of bowel movements during natural feeding is special. Doctors say that if a child doesn’t poke during breastfeeding for up to 7 days - this is the norm, despite the fact that he’s not worried about anything (he sleeps well and eats well). Although the baby can walk "big" and after each feeding, and this is also the norm.
Breastfeeding and chair newborn
Immediately, we note that breastfeeding is much more beneficial for the child than artificial mixtures, and each mother should make every effort to save it for a longer period. Of course, once feeding occurs naturally, it seems that there should be no problems with the baby’s chair. But it's not always the case. What should be a stool in a newborn breastfed, not every experienced pediatrician can say. After all, everything depends on the mother: what she eats, how she feels (psychological state after childbirth, whether she is well rested, etc.). After all, when breastfeeding, the baby is associated with the mother much more than with artificial. Naturally, in the first months of a child’s life, a mother should try to follow a strict diet: not to eat fried and highly salty, forget about sweets and citrus fruits. Then the baby’s chair will be normal. Just remember that in this case, the baby can not for a long time not to crap (up to 7 days), this is considered the norm, but only with his good state of health. It is said that the smaller the peanut is emptied, the better the mother's milk is absorbed.
Artificial feeding and stool of the newborn
What should be the chair of the newborn with artificial feeding? This question also gives moms a lot of trouble. Now companies involved in the production of baby food, offer a huge number of different types of mixtures that are able to replenish the supply of vitamins and other nutrients needed by any child. But often the first mixture that mother tries to give to her child is not very suitable for him. Either an allergic reaction or just a disorder in the work of the gastrointestinal tract makes parents try new and new types of these products from various manufacturers. Some babies have diarrhea, others lead to constipation. Therefore, in this matter all individually. Just when introducing the mixture, it is necessary to accurately track the frequency of bowel movements (usually it reaches 7-10 times per day in newborns) and the color of feces (from yellow to greenish).
Introduction of complementary foods and its effect on baby’s stools
Since the question of the timing of the introduction of complementary foods remains open and there are always a lot of discussions in the moms' society, a few words should be said about the changes in the baby’s chair in this situation. What should be the chair of the newborn, we found out. In infants since the introduction of complementary foods, it will change. And it does not depend on the age when you start to teach the child to food other than breast milk or formula. The chair will become the most viscous and dense, despite the fact that the baby is just given a vegetable or fruit puree. The frequency of bowel movements will also change, most likely, it will decrease dramatically, because the child will now be less likely to eat.
Problems with the chair in the newborn
What kind of stool in a newborn can be considered problematic? After all, it is often a question of illusion or unduly care of inexperienced parents. It is necessary to contact a competent pediatrician in the following cases:
- increase in temperature and number of bowel movements per day (more than 10-12 times),
- fecal too liquid, have a pronounced green color and an unpleasant odor,
- the child feels bad, is not active, refuses to eat,
- a shortage of weight at the end of each month,
- vomiting or frequent abundant regurgitation,
- the baby rarely began to walk "in a small way", which may indicate a shortage of mother's milk,
- there is not a very good smell from the mouth, especially when it comes to the first months of life.
How to behave if you have problems with the baby's chair?
Of course, this happens to many, so you need to behave adequately and not to panic:
- It is necessary to urgently turn to a competent specialist who will prompt the scheme for solving specifically your problem. You should never treat a child yourself, especially if you are not very experienced in this matter.
- Do you need to pass any tests or undergo tests - this will tell you the doctor. You do not need to do anything in advance, then you will avoid unnecessary problems and costs.
- During problems with the chair, try to feed the baby the same way as before, if it does not threaten his life, because numerous experiments at that moment are also not needed.
When babies have normal stools. We start to worry: the delay of the chair in infants
From the literature on caring for a newborn, mothers know that a crumb must cod after each feeding. If the newborn and baby defecate with yellowish gruel, then in babies consuming the mixture, the faeces are more dense. Their smell is peculiar, harsh. If the baby doesn’t suddenly eat all day, the parents will be worried and will think about using a laxative. But does a crumb really need help, moms and dads don't know.
Mode of emptying babies
Eating patterns help to understand why a stool is delayed in a child under the age of one. If the newborn is breastfed and does not receive any drinking or medication, the lack of a chair will be considered normal even for a week. Mother's milk absorbs the body of some babies completely, so the feces are simply not collected.
If the baby is transferred to the bottle and the mother noticed that he did not eat 2 days or more, this is already a problem. Mixture - an artificial product that can not be recycled in full. Her remains should leave the body regularly.
The frequency, number, type of feces depends not only on the type of feeding the child. Up to 12 months of age, several factors affect these indicators:
- mom's nutritional characteristics, if the baby is breastfeeding,
- the composition of human milk (fat slows the movement of feces),
- type of mixture (the factor works when transferring the baby to artificial feeding),
- weak intestinal motility and anterior abdominal wall.
Why does the bowel have difficulty defecating? The fact is that the food gruel is slowly transported through the thick section of the tract and loses all the nutrients. Vitamins and water remain in the masses, gradually filling the lower part of the organ. The gut stretches, feces dries up and becomes bulky and heavy. Since the baby does not have enough developed muscles, the intestine cannot get rid of feces. The process of defecation becomes painful and unpleasant.
When to contact a pediatrician?
The problems of bowel movements of the newborn and older baby are reported by certain symptoms. Caring parents will definitely notice the following deviations:
- lack of gas,
- poor sleep and appetite
- increased nervousness
- anxiety during feeding,
- leg crushing due to bloating and abdominal pain (possibly hard).
Fecal masses in the presence of these anomalies are characterized by increased density. Цвет фекалий меняется с желтого на темный, если малыш переведен на смеси. Поводом для обращения к доктору является как странная консистенция и оттенок кала, так и общее состояние ребенка при проблемах со стулом и отхождением газов.
For example, if a baby doesn’t cocoa and has difficulty with gas, this condition is dangerous for the body. The combination of symptoms signals an intestinal obstruction. If the crumb farts, but does not poke, violation of patency does not threaten him. A moderate gas formation on the background of a rare bowel movement indicates a normal functioning of the gastrointestinal tract.
How to ease the chair baby?
In the absence of nutritional problems, treatment of problematic defecation is carried out by eliminating spasmodic phenomena occurring in the intestine. When a baby cannot poop, it is necessary for him to massage the tummy with a movement of his hand “clockwise”. Bending the legs with pressing to the stomach (like riding a bicycle) will be helpful. Exercise stimulates intestinal peristalsis and accelerates the elimination of processed foods.
If the newborn is worried about the air that has accumulated in the pathway, you can try to put on a vapor pipe. The device irritates the walls of the rectum and forces them to involuntarily contract. At the time of pushing the tube gases come out with feces.
If the baby eats mixtures, cereals, juices, but does not defecate for 3 days in a row, parents should give him warm boiled water to facilitate the pushing out of the feces. Let the crumb consume enough liquid - it will not allow stool delay. You can try to feed the child with another mixture or translate into special food, which prevents colic and hardening of the feces.
Previously, mothers relieved the suffering of children with mechanical irritants. They inserted into the anus a piece of soap, the tip of a thermometer, a hygienic stick in a cream or petroleum jelly. Today, these methods are not welcome pediatricians. If a child, in spite of everything, badly poops, he is prescribed rectal glycerin suppositories.
Doctors suggest that medical treatment of children for intestinal problems should be carried out with mildly acting means:
If the delay of defecation is caused by dysbiosis, bowel treatment is directed to the restoration of the flora. For this purpose, crumbs are prescribed bifidobacteria - Bifidumbacterin, Bifidum, Trilact, Probifor, etc. Give the baby probiotics better in liquid form, since they act in the body immediately. Useful bifidobacteria babies can be obtained from a special fermented milk products. Medical nutrition and medicines are selected individually.
A very important moment in the care of a newborn and an infant concerns the observation of his chair. This is a very important indicator of the health of the baby. It is very important for parents to understand what secrets and information the contents of the diaper of your child can bear, starting from the very birth.
Everything happens for the first time. (about the first chair of the newborn):
The very first chair of a newborn baby is called meconium. It is a sticky (hard to wash), dark mass (almost black). Meconium is the amniotic fluid and epithelial cells of the intestinal wall that have entered the baby’s body in the womb. As a rule, meconium goes outside the baby after birth during the first two days. Meconia is promoted by frequent attachment of the baby to the breast. The first milk - colostrum - has an excellent laxative effect.
The color of meconium is from black to green-black, saturated.
The consistency of meconium is very dense, slightly viscous.
The smell is odorless.
What is wrong with meconium ?:
In this case, a violation of the process of meconium release can go in two directions:
Early exit. Meconium can go before birth. In this case, the amniotic fluid is painted in a greenish color. Such an early release of meconium indicates hypoxia and prolonged labor. Such a phenomenon requires the help and supervision of specialists,
◊ delay the release of meconium. A long delay in the release of meconium (for more than two days) may indicate the presence of congenital diseases (for example, Hirshsprung disease associated with congenital absence of innervation of the intestinal sections). In addition, the delay in the release of meconium, the difficulty of his discharge suggests that the child is undernourished.
This may be due to the following reasons:
◊ insufficient amount of colostrum in mom,
◊ irregular nipple shape (small or sunken), with the result that the baby cannot fully take the breast,
◊ in a baby, due to physiological features, it is not possible to take the breast (this happens quite often when the newborn's lower lip strongly sinks under the upper one). As a result, the baby cannot take the breast correctly.
Thus, if you cause a late exit of meconium and associate with malnutrition, then use special breast pads. They will help the baby more correctly take the breast and fully eat exactly the back milk, which is very high-calorie and healthy!
Thus, to monitor the emptying of the intestines of the baby and the nature of this content is necessary from the very birth of your baby.
Transitional chair This chair will be in the baby until the end of the first week of life. Its composition - the remains of meconium and overcooked colostrum.
The color of transitional feces is from greenish or greenish-yellow to white. Such a varied color indicates that the baby’s stool has not yet been formed and its digestive system is just beginning to develop and adapt to the new food and lifestyle. In addition, the intestinal microflora is just beginning to be colonized by various microorganisms.
The consistency of the transitional feces is quite liquid, and when it hits the tissue surface there is a rather large watery spot around the contents. In addition, this feces is quite heterogeneous, it can meet different in density, consistency and color areas.
The smell of transitional feces is sour, rather sharp.
In addition, mucus and undigested lumps of food may be present in the impurities of the transitional feces.
All these indicators are within the normal range and should not force parents to worry excessively. The appearance of transitional feces indicates the normalization of the lactation process in the mother and the formation and development of the digestive system in the baby.
Transitional feces: what makes you worry.
Constipation. The delay of the chair in the first week after the birth of the baby suggests that the mother has little colostrum and first milk. The kid is simply undernourished. In addition, stool retention may also be due to the fact that the colostrum is completely absorbed by the baby’s body. And the process of defecation in newborns occurs only when the intestines are sufficiently filled with contents. But since this transition period from meconium to feces of infants and from colostrum to milk in mothers is rather short, special attention should be paid to the feces that the baby will have in 6-8 days after birth.
The protracted period of the transitional chair (more than one week). Such a long process of transition from meconium to a normal baby chair speaks of violations in the process of formation of the baby’s microflora. What are the reasons for this delay:
◊ feeding a newborn in the hospital with artificial mixtures,
◊ weaning at the maternity hospital,
◊ forced administration of antibiotics (then the feces acquires a greenish color with a rather sharp odor),
◊ big breaks in feeding,
◊ violations in the process of lactation at the mother (milk does not come for a long time).
What is important to consider: if a child feels well against such deviations in the formation of a chair, gains weight within the normal range, has a good appetite, then such changes in the chair do not need to be corrected. If, on the contrary, the child is sluggish, eats poorly and gains weight - this is a cause for concern and seeking medical help.
Baby chair: how normal ?:
After a week after birth, the contents of the diaper of the baby will change. These changes will occur gradually, so you need to be patient and not make hasty conclusions.
The color of the feces of the baby - at the end of the transitional period, the feces of the baby becomes yellow.
Important! When taking iron supplements, feces may turn black.
Consistency - mushy, can vary from more dense to more dense. The consistency of the feces of the baby is influenced by such factors as:
◊ mom's nutrition during lactation. Some foods that a nursing mother eats are able to loosen or secure an infant’s chair.
◊ milk fat. If the baby sucks the breast badly, then it feeds more on the front milk, which is less dense and fat. The stool in such children is usually more fluid.
◊ type of infant feeding: breast or artificial. Babies who are bottle-fed have a denser stool due to worse digestion and assimilation of the mixture. In such babies, the problem of constipation is more acute. In breastfed babies, the stool is more fluid and constipation is less common, since the mother’s milk is absorbed by the child’s body more quickly and easily.
The smell - can be varied, depends on the nutrition of the nursing mother. In children on an artificial diet the smell is usually sour-milk.
Be sure to keep in mind the fact that the main and only food of the baby - milk. This is a natural product that can shift the characteristics of the baby’s chair in different directions. You should not strive to ensure that the baby's chair was strictly the same. This is almost impossible to achieve, and not necessary.
The amount of stool. After two weeks, this is an important indicator of the health and nutrition of the baby. Here such moment is important: the minimum number of feces should be 2-3 per day. Often in children at that age and more often. too rare stool suggests that your baby does not receive enough food (there is not enough milk for him).
What can be violations ?:
In fact, there are many such violations of infants stool. It should be understood that such signs in a baby are a cause for concern:
Bad weight gain,
These indicators are an important signal for referring a gastroenterologist to determine the cause and correct such deviations.
In addition, the following signs of stool changes should alert parents:
◊ Constipation. Prolonged absence of feces suggests that the baby is undernourished. In addition, with a lack of an enzyme that breaks down milk sugar, the feces are compacted and also leads to a delay in stool and painful stool. In addition, such feces can damage the rectum and cause cracks, which are very painful for the baby.
Babies who are bottle-fed have a denser stool and less feces. This is normal. Just need to pick the mixture correctly.
Large amount of mucus in feces. Such a chair suggests that the baby recently had had such an infection. In addition, such a chair is often observed in children during the period of teething.
What to do? If the mucus in the stool persists for a long time, then this is the reason for contacting the gastroenterologist to correct this condition after the examination (as a rule, an analysis called the coprogram is taken).
◊ The chair is frothy, slightly greenish, with a very strong odor. In addition, there is irritation of the skin around the anus. Such a chair most often speaks of overeating and an excess of milk from mom.
What to do? Change breast less often, so that the baby eats mostly back milk. It contains enzymes for the breakdown of milk sugar.
◊ The chair is foamy, green, its appearance is accompanied by a characteristic "cotton", which indicates increased gas formation. This character of the stool suggests lactase deficiency (lack of an enzyme that breaks down milk sugar). To correct this condition, it is necessary to consult a doctor. And mom should make sure that the baby gets more back milk, which is very rich in these enzymes.
◊ Very frequent yellow or green stools with a very unpleasant odor. This character of the stool indicates the presence of infection and requires immediate treatment to the doctor.
◊ Blood impurities in feces. This is a dangerous symptom that speaks of various pathologies, including bleeding, milk protein allergies, hemorrhoids, congenital bowel disease, and bacterial infection.
All the listed features should serve as a reason for going to the doctor. After all, the nature of the baby's feces is a "litmus test" of all the processes occurring in the baby's body. And the analysis of the contents of the diaper can sometimes help in time to recognize dangerous diseases or deviations. In order to do this correctly, it is imperative to have information about the standards in the children's chair, which are described above.
Breastfeed babies! This will avoid many of the health problems of your baby.
Problems with the tummy - a frequent phenomenon in the beginning of the child's life. One of these problems is constipation in a newborn that can appear immediately after birth. With constipation in newborns can not be treated with drugs that are usually used for adults. You should also be wary of treating constipation in newborns with traditional medicine. After all, medicinal plants can include substances that have an adverse effect on a small organism.
To help the child, it is necessary to determine the cause. And remember that all drugs for constipation for newborns are prescribed only by a specialist. Moreover, in most cases, if you correctly correct the diet of the mother and the amount of fluid consumed by the child, you can eliminate this problem.
Signs of constipation in a baby
You need to know that up to 3 months the intestines of a newborn are emptied after feeding. Therefore, a chair up to 8 times a day is considered normal for an infant. Babies with artificial feeding should have stool at least 2 times a day. If the child is worried about the tummy, he tries to say so. Constipation in newborns has the following symptoms:
- the child’s tummy becomes hard, and he often arches the back,
- baby all the time, straining, pressing legs to the tummy,
- the newborn is anxious, constantly crying, naughty and does not want to eat,
- no stool more than a day
- unusual for newborn feces - solid, with the smell of rot.
The reasons for the delay in the chair baby
About once a week, a newborn may experience stool delays due to poor bowel performance. As the period of adaptation to the food unusual for him goes through. And often by 2 - 3 months the problem disappears. But if the difficult chair is repeated very often, you should find out the reasons and begin to eliminate them. Because constipation in a newborn can become chronic. Especially when constipation in newborns painful pain. There are several causes of constipation in newborns:
- improper diet nursing mom,
- inadequate feeding
- transition from breastfeeding to the mixture,
- lack of fluid
- violation of intestinal microflora,
- inflammatory process or congenital bowel disease,
- neurological diseases
- infectious diseases,
- genetic predisposition.
To determine the cause, you need to consult a pediatrician. He will conduct an examination, prescribe medicine for newborns and advise how to treat the child.
First aid for a newborn
Constipation in the newborn what to do? If the first signs of constipation are found in a newborn, then in order to help the child, you need to increase its mobility. Also, when constipation in newborns, you need to review the daily diet of a nursing mother. But this is not enough, then it is necessary to do certain procedures and treat constipation in a newborn.
From constipation for newborns need to do a tummy massage. It is better to carry out the procedure in warm water, as it relaxes the muscles. To do this, put the baby on the tummy of his hand and carry out circular movements. Massage should be neatly, with slight pressure. Then you need to do the exercise: bending-straightening the legs, pulling them to the tummy. Massage for newborns with constipation helps to strengthen the oblique abdominal muscles, thanks to this, stool normalization occurs. After six months, the child can be planted in a pot. The seat of the pot carries the appropriate pressure, and it will be easier for the baby to defecate.
The next method to help with constipation in newborns is mechanical stimulation. Soap from constipation for newborns is not allowed, because it irritates the mucous membrane and can cause the appearance of anus microcracks. To stimulate constipation in newborns, use the vapor tube or pipette tip. The tube should be treated with baby oil, put into the anus for 5 - 7 mm, then gently do the scrolling until the baby starts to push. After this procedure, the child should be emptied.
However, this remedy for constipation in newborns needs to be used sporadically. Because the regular implementation of stimulation can lead to the fact that the baby gets used, and will not feel the urge to defecate.
Для того чтобы устранить запоры у новорожденных, также используют свечи. Приобрести эти препараты от запоров для новорожденных можно во всех аптеках без рецепта. Свечи имеют две разновидности – глицериновые и газообразующие. Glycerin candles are composed of glycerin, it softens the feces, facilitating the process of defecation. Gas-forming candles activate the urge to defecate by means of carbon dioxide formed during their dissolution. The most comfortable position for the introduction of candles when the newborn lies on its side with legs bent. Candles for constipation for newborns should be used after consulting a pediatrician.
If there are no candles, and the child suffers, then an enema is made. For her take water at room temperature. Enema for a newborn up to 3 months should be 30 ml, for a child older than 3 months - 90 ml. Pre-tip of the enema should be treated with petroleum jelly. Enema is placed when the baby is lying on its back with its legs raised. It must be remembered that the enema is done in a relaxed state, so it is imperative to calm the child.
However, suppositories and enemas are not recommended for frequent use. The intestine can get used to these tools from constipation in newborns, and in the future it will stop performing its functions in the right amount. In addition, the enema washes out beneficial bacteria from the intestines.
How to help a newborn with constipation, if the above methods did not produce results? Laxatives can be given. But only after their appointment as a pediatrician. Most often, doctors recommend treating disorders of intestinal motility by a remedy for constipation for newborns on the basis of lactulose, for example, Dufalac, Lisalak, Normase, Normalakt. They are not harmful to the newborn and do not contribute to addiction.
Along with these laxatives, it is sometimes advised to use Espumizan, because lactulose can cause an increase in gas formation. However, it must be remembered that taking Espumizan can also cause stool retention, so it is better not to use it for constipation in newborns.
To get rid of gases, it is better to use the drug Plantex. This is a special remedy for gastrointestinal problems. Plantex consists of natural ingredients. It includes fennel, lactose and dextrose. Plantex has an antispasmodic and carminative effect. It improves digestion, has a beneficial effect on the secretion of gastric juice. Plantex promotes rapid and effective absorption of breast milk or formula. The active components of the drug prevent the formation of gases in the intestine. In addition, Plantex improves intestinal motility and facilitates bowel movement.
Newborns can brew Plantex 1 sachet per day. Take the drug you need after feeding. To avoid constipation in newborns, it is advisable to give Plantex when complementary feeding is introduced or during the transition from breastfeeding to the mixture.
Normalization of the work of the intestines of newborns
In order to normalize the activity of the child's digestive tract, as well as for the purpose of prevention, it is necessary to observe such conditions.
To bring the bowels of the baby back to normal, it is necessary to follow the proper nutrition of the mother. It is necessary to limit the use of flour products, rice, milk, raw vegetables and fruits. Mom needs to add to the diet foods that have a laxative effect. These are beets, dried fruits (dried apricots, prunes), vegetable oils. It would also be advisable to drink plenty of fluids.
If the baby is bottle-fed, it is important to choose the right mix. There is also a special mixture recommended for constipation in a newborn. This mixture is fully adapted for babies, it can be used directly on the first day of stool retention, as a remedy for constipation for newborns. Or completely replace it with food. It includes lactulose, which activates the development of bifidobacteria and promotes the dilution of feces. The mixture, assigned to the newborn from constipation, stimulates the intestinal tract, improves metabolism, helps to strengthen the immune system.
During the period of prikorma can make porridge with plums. In addition, raisins and prunes are very weak, but caution should be exercised with these products.
This applies especially to children for feeding which the mixture is used. It is necessary to feed the child with boiled water, you can also give him some dill, Plantex tea for constipation for newborns. A little later, you can cook a light compote of dried fruit, make berry fruit drinks with a laxative effect. If stool recurs frequently in infants, it must also be supplemented with fluid.
Massage, gymnastics, laying on the tummy
For a newborn, physical contact with the mother is very important. Vykladyvanie mother on the stomach helps to relax the baby. Also, for relaxation it is recommended to make a warm bath for the child. A tummy massage in combination with gymnastic exercises helps strengthen the muscles and the proper functioning of the digestive organs.
The delay of the chair in infants causes a lot of panic in parents. Any manifestation of problems with defecation suggests the presence of constipation in the baby. However, constipation does not always accurately characterize the problem of defecation, so it is urgently necessary to find out the causes of this phenomenon.
Signs and causes: how to recognize them?
Parents it is important to pay attention to the general condition of the baby and the consistency of fecal masses. If the delay is associated with constipation, then the child will be moody and tearful. The kid can often push, but this does not lead to the desired result. During an attempt to go to the toilet, the baby is worried, his condition becomes nervous. During constipation, the stool has a firm texture. He looks like a pea or has a cork, after which there is a mass of feces.
If there is a delay in feces, but the child is calm, does not refuse to feed, and the act of defecation does not cause discomfort, then it is clearly not about constipation. A newborn may often have such a problem: the quality of assimilation of the mixture or mother's milk is too good. In this case, the tiny elementary nothing to go to the toilet. In the presence of the following manifestations need to find out the reasons. It is necessary to show the baby to the doctor.
Another problem is lactose deficiency. It occurs due to the small amount of the enzyme or its complete absence. This enzyme is necessary for the breakdown of milk sugar - lactose. Such a violation is manifested easily, since the absence of a chair can be replaced by diarrhea.
To eliminate the delay, you need to get rid of the reasons that can cause such a phenomenon. To this end, the mother’s diet is necessarily adjusted and the baby’s drinking regime is observed. In some cases it is necessary to further moisten the air in the room. You should consult with your doctor if you need to replace the mixture used or adjust the nature of complementary foods.
If there is no result during the implementation of these changes, the baby’s condition should be diagnosed. This will eliminate diseases or detect them. Do not rush to use enemas and various laxatives.
As for the permitted funds, it is prohibited for a newborn to use any laxative preparations other than Lactulose. reduce the reflex of the baby, which is associated with the process of emptying. The degree of absorption of useful vitamins and substances decreases, the tone of intestinal muscles decreases, which only worsens the situation. Therefore, it is required to help the child with harmless means before moving on to more serious medicines.
In this case, you need to spread the baby more often on the belly. It is useful to perform a tummy massage, followed by a previously named coup. It is necessary to do movement in a clockwise direction, and press the legs to the stomach. They can perform a simulation of cycling.
The relaxing effect on the baby is warm, so you should put a warm diaper on the baby’s belly. You can place the baby on the mother's belly. Heat not only calms the baby, but also stimulates the work of peristalsis.
Earlier it was stated that it is necessary to try to fix the problem without the involvement of medicines. However, drugs can become irreplaceable helpers if other methods have not helped. It is important to consult with a specialist before using a medication method of treatment and to observe the indicated dosage. Independent choice of means and selection of dosage is prohibited.
Candles with glycerin are safe for a small child. However, most experts do not recommend their use in the treatment of infants. The use of such drugs is justified only in emergency situations when other means do not give a positive result. This is due to the possibility of an allergic reaction, itching and other irritations. Therefore, it is important to consult a doctor. An example of glycerin suppositories is Glycelax.
It is necessary to consult and before applying enemas and mikroklizm. Such methods are not natural stimulants of the bowels, therefore it is recommended to avoid this method. Like medications, enemas are used in extreme cases. In this situation, you will need to take 30-120 ml of water at room temperature. The tip of the pear should be lubricated with petroleum jelly.
A popular prebiotic is the previously mentioned Lactulose agent, which can be prescribed if stool retention was caused by dysbiosis. It is used as a means of preventing constipation. The tool has a mild effect, so it is safe for the youngest patients. Does not lead to addiction, and with prolonged use restores the microflora, which was previously broken.
Problems with the chair in infants require careful action by parents. It is necessary to consult with a specialist and avoid drugs, which are recommended in extreme cases.
Children's troubles: hard stool in infants
Threats to the body with liquid stools in infants
Watery stools: causes of infancy
Features of the chair in infants
Breastfeeding baby chair can be anything. Unlike the newborn, which is on artificial mixtures, the quality and quantity of the baby’s stool changes regularly. The decisive role in this case is played by the age and behavior of the little ones.
In the first week, newborns have a stool at least 3 times a day, sometimes a figure reaches 12. If the chair is not present for more than a day, this indicates that the infant receives little milk.
After 6 weeks, the baby usually starts to empty the intestines less frequently. However, some continue to go “to the toilet” after each feeding. This is not unusual. Much depends on the diet of the nursing mother, the number of feedings and even the psychological state of the baby.
During this period, the absence of a chair is allowed for up to a week in case the baby behaves calmly and normally adds weight. The consistency and color of the chair is different. At the same time, the smell is often fermented milk or there is no smell at all. There may be white lumps, and a small amount of mucus.
With the introduction of complementary foods after six months, stool occurs less frequently and decreases to 1-2 times per day. Consider that the color and consistency are strongly influenced by complementary foods.
How to get ahead that the chair in infants is not in order, if the color and consistency is constantly changing? Pay attention to the behavior and growth of the baby. If the weight of the baby does not increase or even decreases. On the norms in weight gain, read here http://vskormi.ru/general-questions/norma-pribavki-vesa-u-novorozhdennyh-do-goda/.
If, before or during a bowel movement, the infant cries and behaves restlessly. Changes in behavior and well-being, changes in the appearance of the newborn - a reason for increased attention to the digestion of the infant.
The feces of babies can be of different shades: bright and light yellow, orange, light and dark green, light brown. What affects the color:
- Type of feeding. When breastfeeding feces will be green,
- Drugs, which takes mom. Digestion responds to antibiotics, activated carbon, and drugs that contain iron or dyes. Cal becomes much darker than usual, it can even get black. Black chair is nothing scary!
- Start feeding. The color is influenced by the products with which the mother begins to feed the baby. At the beginning of feeding, the feces turn green. There may be yellow, white or green blotches,
- The baby doesn’t absorb breastmilk badly, which causes green or orange stools,
- Bilirubin is a bile pigment that appears due to the breakdown of blood proteins. It gives stool a tan or orange tint. This reaction occurs in 70% of kids. It passes without treatment, since bilirubin is independently excreted in the urine and feces,
- Dysbacteriosis. If an imbalance occurs in the intestinal microflora, then the stool becomes lighter. However, feces acquire light shades and in the period of teething.
If the newborn changes only the color, and the smell, texture and the presence of impurities remain the same, then the problem is in the type of food.
The consistency of the chair in infants is also different. It is mostly liquid, because the first six months of life a baby receives dairy liquid food. With artificial or mixed feeding, the stool is thicker and darker.
But how to understand if your baby has normal loose stools or diarrhea? A newborn has diarrhea if:
- The chair is both fluid and watery,
- The frequency of defecation increases,
- The stools have an unpleasant smell, an expressive green or yellow color,
- The baby's temperature rises,
- Vomiting begins,
- In the diaper a lot of foam and mucus, there are streaks of blood,
- The baby is sluggish and weak.
However, it is not always yellow or green stools mixed with foam or mucus that means diarrhea. Always look at the state of the baby. If there is a weakness, temperature, increased gas formation, then it is worth sounding the alarm. If the baby sleeps well and feels cheerful, then there is no cause for concern.
The presence of impurities in the stool - the norm, if the baby feels good. However, with elevated temperature, loss of appetite and weight, be sure to visit a doctor.
- White lumps - pieces of curdled milk that appear when overeating a baby. The digestive system simply does not cope with the volume of food during feeding. In addition, indigestible food often appears after the start of complementary foods. This leads to a rapid weight gain of the baby.,
- Mucus is present in the stool of each newborn in small amounts. Increased mucus indicates the beginning of the inflammatory process. This is due to improper breastfeeding, improper formula, overfeeding, medication, early feeding and other reasons,
- Foam is a functional disorder that does not indicate any disease or pathology. Foam appears due to colic or increased gas formation in an infant. However, copious foam can be a symptom of dysbiosis or intestinal infection,
- Blood is a serious symptom that requires mandatory treatment to the doctor. This is often an indicator of dermatitis, rectal fissures, inflammation or bowel disease, protein allergies.
In the first month of breastfeeding, the stool occurs after each meal. Then the frequency is reduced by 2-4 times, the baby can even begin to go to the “toilet” once a day or two. This is due to the renewal of breast milk.
During this period, the baby is capricious, sometimes refuses to breast. This is a temporary phenomenon, in which there is nothing terrible. If the chair does not occur for 2-3 days, but there is no discomfort during bowel movements, the baby does not lose weight, the delay is not constipated.
Signs of constipation in a newborn:
- Difficult bowel movement,
- The delay of the chair for more than 1.5 days,
- Significant discomfort during bowel movements.
By the way, when breastfeeding constipation is rare. They are characteristic of newborns in artificial mixtures. However, if constipation occurred in infants, then pay attention to the nutrition of nursing mothers. With such a problem, plums, dried apricots and prunes will help if the newborn does not have an allergy. And remember about the extent of use!
Massage will also help. But with the use of drugs is better to wait. Before taking medications, be sure to consult your doctor!