Whooping cough is an acute bacterial infection, characterized by paroxysmal spasmodic cough. Whooping cough occurs predominantly in childhood, and only occasionally occurs in pregnant women. What is the danger of this infection for the future mother and her baby?
The causative agent of pertussis is bacteria Bordet-Zhang, named after the scientists who described this microorganism. The disease is transmitted by airborne droplets. The susceptibility to infection is high - 90% of non-vaccinated people get sick when they come into contact with a sick or carrier whooping cough. A person remains infectious from 1 to 25 days of illness.
Congenital immunity against whooping cough does not exist. After suffering the disease produced resistant acquired immunity. Children under 2 years of age are most susceptible to infection. Among pregnant women, the disease is quite rare, which is primarily due to the widespread vaccination of children against pertussis.
The disease occurs mainly in the autumn-winter period. Often, whooping cough is disguised as a prolonged acute respiratory viral infection with a long, painful cough. A blurred picture of the disease in vaccinated people makes it difficult to make a diagnosis and often becomes the cause of outdated treatment.
The entrance gate of the infection is the mucous membrane of the upper respiratory tract. The causative agent of whooping cough multiplies on the surface of cells, penetrates into the bronchi and bronchioles. As a result of inflammation, purulent plugs are formed, blocking the lumen of the small bronchi. There are typical bouts of cough, which distinguish whooping cough from other respiratory infectious diseases.
The incubation period lasts from 2 to 14 days (usually 5-7 days). During the disease there are several stages:
At the initial stage, the cough is dry, moderate. Over time, the cough increases, becomes more and more intrusive. Coughing attacks occur predominantly in the evening or at night. The general condition of the woman remains satisfactory. Perhaps a slight increase in body temperature to 37-37.5 ° C. The duration of this stage of the disease is 7-14 days.
In the catarrhal period, it is almost impossible to distinguish whooping cough from another respiratory disease. In this case, the patient becomes infectious to others. Pertussis bacteria are secreted by coughing and sneezing during the first three weeks of illness.
The spasmodic period lasts from 4 to 6 weeks. There is a strong paroxysmal cough, which allows to distinguish whooping cough from other diseases. Attack of cough with whooping cough is a strong cough tremors, one after another. After several cough shocks, a whistling deep breath (reprise) occurs. The attack ends with the discharge of thick and very viscous sputum. Perhaps the development of vomiting at the height of a coughing fit.
The number of coughing attacks during the day varies from 5 to 40 and more. Most often attacks occur in the evening and at night. During coughing, short-term cessation of breathing (apnea) is possible. The general condition of the woman is not disturbed. Body temperature at this stage of the disease remains within the normal range.
Reverse development period
Recovery from whooping cough is long and takes at least 2-4 weeks. During this period, coughing attacks become less frequent and then disappear completely. For 2-3 weeks, the usual cough with a small amount of sputum persists. The condition of the pregnant woman is gradually improving.
Vaccination against whooping cough does not guarantee complete protection against this disease. In 5% of people, the infection occurs even after vaccination. After vaccination, the disease is atypical and is not always accompanied by the appearance of coughing episodes with reprisals and apnea. In this regard, the diagnosis of pertussis in adults (including pregnant women) is very difficult. With an atypical course of the disease, diagnosis can only be made after targeted laboratory examination.
On the background of whooping cough may develop such complications:
- bronchitis and bronchiolitis,
- laryngitis (inflammation of the larynx) and false croup,
- encephalopathy (brain damage with the development of focal symptoms and seizures).
Pregnant women rarely have complications. Most often, the serious effects of whooping cough are observed in childhood.
Consequences for the fetus
Like any infectious disease, in early pregnancy, whooping cough can cause fetal malformations. Infection of the baby in the first trimester, when all the internal organs are laid down, is very dangerous. It is possible to identify serious developmental abnormalities after an infection during ultrasound.
Severe pertussis in early pregnancy can lead to miscarriage, and in late pregnancy can cause premature labor. The disease is especially dangerous in the spasmodic period. Severe painful coughing attacks can trigger an increase in uterine tone, placental abruption and bleeding. Stopping breathing during an attack adversely affects the development of the fetus and throughout pregnancy.
Other effects of pertussis for future mothers:
- placental insufficiency
- hypoxia and delayed fetal development.
These symptoms are not specific and occur with any serious infectious disease. The obstetrician-gynecologist together with an infectious disease specialist is engaged in the treatment of pregnancy complications.
The greatest danger is pertussis, which occurred shortly before birth. Within 25 days of the first symptoms, the woman is a source of infection for her baby. If a child is born at this time, he has a very high chance of contracting whooping cough. In newborns, the disease is severe and often leads to serious complications. Specific immunity against pertussis from the mother is not transmitted.
The treatment of pertussis in pregnant women is dealt with by an infectious diseases specialist together with an obstetrician-gynecologist. In milder forms of the disease, therapy is carried out at home. Hospitalization is indicated in the following situations:
- severe pertussis with frequent attacks,
- whooping cough in women with severe extragenital pathology,
- whooping cough with complications
- the emergence of pregnancy complications and the deterioration of the fetus in the background of infection.
For speedy recovery it is recommended:
- Plentiful warm drink.
- Regular airing of the room.
- Daily wet cleaning.
- Installation of air humidifiers in the room where there is a sick person.
- A balanced diet (a diet enriched with protein and vitamins).
Pregnant women in the spasmodic period of whooping cough is important to avoid stress and physical exertion. Any tension at this time can provoke another attack of painful cough and lead to an increase in the tone of the uterus. Expectant mother should be in a relaxed atmosphere until recovery. When well-being, daily walks in the fresh air are recommended.
Antibacterial drugs for whooping cough are ineffective. Specific therapy is prescribed for severe pertussis. During pregnancy, antibiotics are rarely used, and only for special reasons. Priority is given to macrolide drugs. These funds are recognized as relatively safe for the fetus and can be used in the II and III trimesters.
Antitussives during pregnancy are used with great care. If coughing does not occur too often, you should refrain from using such drugs. Mucolytics and expectorant drugs are selected by a doctor taking into account the severity of the disease and the duration of this pregnancy. Mucolytic drugs can be used inhalation for better penetration of the drug into the small bronchi.
Sedatives are prescribed in the spasmodic period to reduce the excitability of the nervous system and reduce the frequency of coughing episodes. Motherwort and valerian tablets and drops are used during pregnancy. You can take sedatives at any stage of pregnancy until full recovery.
Vaccination is considered the best way to prevent infection. Vaccination is given to children under the age of 4 years. DTP and Pentaxim vaccines are used to protect against pertussis. These drugs also create specific immunity against diphtheria and tetanus.
Vaccination against whooping cough adults are not put. The question of the possibility of vaccination during pregnancy remains controversial. Some experts argue that vaccination against whooping cough, carried out in the II or III trimester, is able to protect the future mother from infection, and the baby from possible infection after her birth. Other doctors believe that during pregnancy you should not once again interfere with the immune system of a woman. Vaccination is clearly recommended when a pertussis epidemic occurs in the area where a pregnant woman lives.
The disease is caused by a special microorganism - the bacterium Bordetella pertussis, which is a gram-negative rounded rod with dimensions of 0.3 * 1 micron. It is able to form thermostable toxins, lecithinase, hyaluronidase, plasma coagulase. On its surface, it carries somatic O and capsular antigens, in response to which persistent lifelong immunity is formed.
Bordetella is unstable to the environment and under the influence of sunlight loses its pathogenic properties for 1 hour. When heated above 55 degrees, the pertussis pathogen dies after 15 minutes, in a 3% phenol solution - instantly.
Causes of illness
Transfer of whooping cough during pregnancy, as in other cases, occurs through airborne droplets. Infectious disease is a typical anthroponosis, you can only get from a person.
Epidemiological risk is:
- Sick people (from 1 to 25 days of illness).
- Patients with atypical pertussis.
- Carriers of infection.
Most of the rest are affected by small children (up to 2 years) and women during gestation, which is caused by hormonal changes and physiological decline in the body's defenses during gestation.
In this regard, during pregnancy and whooping cough, and possible complications are particularly difficult, and in order to select the optimal treatment, an ENT doctor and an infectious disease specialist need to be consulted, together with the gynecologist who leads the pregnancy.
Symptoms of the disease in pregnant women
The incubation period for whooping cough in pregnant women ranges from 2 days to 2 weeks. Then gradually begin to develop characteristic symptoms of the disease. Whooping cough during pregnancy is difficult, characterized by the frequent development of complications, both for the mother and for the child. This is due to the fact that in the female body, during the period of gestation, there are many changes and the immune system is difficult to resist infection.
Characteristic is the staging of the disease in expectant mothers:
- Catarrhal period. It manifests itself after incubation and is characterized by the appearance of dry, moderate cough (mainly at night). The temperature rarely rises to 37 degrees, the general condition of the pregnant woman does not suffer. At this stage, it is almost impossible to distinguish dangerous whooping cough from a banal acute respiratory viral infection, which leads to the establishment of a false erroneous diagnosis and the appointment of the wrong treatment.
- Spasmodic period - characterized by the appearance of strong coughing attacks with characteristic for whooping cough reprisals, the release of thick mucous sputum, fever. Untreated cough greatly exhausts the maternal organism, leading to insomnia, anxiety and disruption of the general state, which has a negative effect on the developing fetus and during the pregnancy itself. The period of spasmodic cough is the most dangerous for pregnant women and the baby and necessarily needs treatment.
- Reverse development is a period of gradual extinction of the symptoms of the disease. It is characterized by a decrease in the intensity and frequency of coughing attacks, improving the patient's condition. However, during this period, the likelihood of dangerous consequences for the mother and the child remains, therefore, the treatment and observation of the physician must continue until full recovery.
Against the background of the typical course of whooping cough, the expectant mother may have such complications as inflammation of the larynx, bronchi, severe pneumonia. It is extremely rare to find bleeding from the nose and encephalopathy with the development of seizure syndrome.
If you suspect whooping cough, during a routine examination, gynecologists must send a pregnant woman for a consultation with an ENT specialist. The typical signs that allow to diagnose a dangerous disease at an early stage are edema of the laryngeal mucosa and hemorrhage, visible only with laryngoscopy. Confirmed diagnosis by serological reactions and PCR.
Danger to the fetus
Whooping cough disease during gestation can lead to serious consequences not only for the mother, but also for the fetus, and also affect the normal course of pregnancy:
- General intoxication in case of whooping cough causes delays in fetal development, as well as a lag in growth and weight gain in a newborn baby.
- Cough, sputum obstruction, episodes of apnea at the height of the seizures, leading to intrauterine hypoxia.
- In the early stages, especially in the first two months of gestation, the disease can lead to stillbirth, the formation of congenital abnormalities in the baby.
- In the second and third trimesters, the spasmodic period of whooping cough is especially dangerous, because during attacks of cough there is a strong tension of the abdominal muscles and diaphragm, which leads to an increase in the tone of the uterus and, as a result, to miscarriage or premature birth.
- Excessive stress can lead to premature detachment of the placenta, bleeding.
The effects of infection on the infant are varied. A child born to an ill mother may suffer from congenital deafness, cataracts, and hemorrhagic syndrome.
At the stage of embryonic development, heart defects, the central nervous system, the gastrointestinal tract and the digestive system can form in the fetus. Often there are pathologies of the development of the musculoskeletal system. The shorter the gestational age at which the disease occurred - the higher the likelihood of congenital abnormalities.
The development of pertussis in pregnant women immediately before childbirth is also dangerous. It was at this time that the sick mother is the source of infection for the child. Congenital immunity from pertussis is absent, therefore the incidence among such infants reaches 90%. In infants the disease is particularly difficult, characterized by the frequent development of pneumonia and laryngospasm.
Treatment and Prevention
With this disease, etiotropic therapy with antibacterial drugs (macroid group) and detoxification therapy (infusion, heavy drinking) is shown, with the aim of eliminating intoxication and reducing the likelihood of developing CAP in the fetus.
For relief of strong coughing and spasm of the larynx, as recommended by an otolaryngologist, you can use antitussive (libexin) and mucolytics. To reduce anxiety, excitability of the central nervous system of a pregnant woman and, thereby, eliminate the increased tone of the uterus, sedatives are used -
Like any pathology, whooping cough is easier to prevent than to cure. Despite the fact that a persistent lifelong immunity is formed only in those who have been ill, children under the age of 4 years are recommended to have DPT or Pentaxim vaccination.
When planning a pregnancy, it is important to check the level of antibodies to the bacteria Bordetella. In the case of immunity deficiency, with the threat of developing the disease in a pregnant woman (contact with patients, an epidemic), in order to protect the mother and child from infection and dangerous consequences, vaccination should be carried out in 2 or 3 trimesters.
Treatment of pertussis in a pregnant woman should be carried out strictly under the supervision of an ENT specialist and a gynecologist. You can not ignore the symptoms of the disease or self-medicate.
Whooping cough is not only a childhood disease
There is an opinion about the "childishness" of whooping cough, but adults can also be affected by this disease. Although children's vaccination complexes form a specific immunity in children, the period of vaccination lasts for about 12 years. Vaccinated children are usually protected from infection, but even if they become infected, the disease will pass in a milder form. Immunity of the ill child also does not last forever and lasts for about 20 years. And it turns out that an adult becomes absolutely unprotected in front of this disease. And adding here the personal reduced immunity of a pregnant woman, the risk of whooping cough infection increases significantly.
How can you get whooping cough
Whooping cough caused by Bordetella pertussis bacteria. The method of transmission is airborne. The fragility of the life of this bacterium in the environment reduces the risk of morbidity. Whooping cough during pregnancy можно «схватить» только, если болен кто-то из домашних, ведь заразиться можно при контакте на расстоянии 2-х метров.
Инфицированный человек становится заразен в конце инкубационного периода и остается опасным еще 4-6 недель. Полное выздоровление от этого заболевания происходит через 4-6 месяцев.
Whooping cough is possible in the season from November to January. With its complications it is especially dangerous for babies up to 2 years. Once on the bronchial mucosa, bacteria multiply very quickly, releasing toxins (endo- and exo-). If they hit the blood, then a hotbed of excitation appears in the cough center of the brain. This focus is so stable that even with the death of bacteria, a spasmodic cough still continues.
Differs in pronounced symptomatology. The disease is long, there are several periods:
- incubation. Duration - from three days to two weeks. The man became infected, the first signs of the disease appeared,
- catarrhal Lasts from 10 to 15 days. The disease is perceived as a common cold. Keeps low temperature, dry cough. The only difference is the inefficiency of conventional treatments,
- spastic. Seizures of a strong paroxysmal cough, during which swelling of the veins in the neck and face and an increase in blood pressure can be observed, are characteristic. Cough thick mucus coughing up vomiting. Whoever has whooping cough, externally, appears puffy, cyanosis, on the face in the area of the nose, you can see the burst small blood vessels. At the end of this period, the bacteria have already died in the body, but the cough does not stop,
- reverse development. A period of gradual but long relief. Lasts six months. Attacks gradually fade away.
Pertussis danger during pregnancy
It is very dangerous for a pregnant woman to get sick with this disease, especially in the later periods, because infection of the fetus can occur, which sometimes causes the child to be fatal.
At gestational age of up to 12 weeks, mother whooping cough will also affect the fetus. Disorders in the child's digestive, urinary, nervous system may occur, leading to deafness. And in the presence of such deviations from the norm, the fetus usually freezes, so it is important to contact a specialist immediately at the first symptoms of the disease.
Pertussis symptoms during pregnancy
Unfortunately, it does not bypass this unpleasant disease and pregnant women. The development of the disease occurs gradually.
Pertussis in pregnant women has the following symptoms:
- Lymph nodes are enlarged.
- There is a small cough, then a very strong cough, until exhaustion, with the release of viscous vitreous sputum.
- A coughing attack can sometimes result in a slight cessation of breathing.
- The body temperature rises.
- Rhinitis appears.
- A rash appears on the face and within two or three hours it spreads rapidly throughout the body. Form of rash - small round or oval spots of pale pink color. When it disappears, there is no peeling and pigmentation, there are no traces of scars.
Patients with pertussis in pregnant women are placed in a hospital and treated with antibiotic therapy, cough medicines that do not harm the health of the pregnant woman. You can also take into account and use the recipes of traditional medicine.
An infectious disease during pregnancy can provoke very severe pathologies in fetal development: congenital deafness, hemorrhagic syndrome, cataracts, heart disease, malformation of the genitourinary system and the digestive tract, damage to the skeleton and damage to the central nervous system.
An incredibly high risk to the fetus occurs when a pregnant woman becomes ill with whooping cough in early pregnancy, especially in the first eight weeks. The risk of fetal abnormality in this case reaches almost all of 100%. In the later stages of pregnancy, the risk of developing the pathology of the child is much reduced.
Frequent cases of miscarriage in pregnant women with whooping cough. The disease is so serious that it can lead to the birth of a dead child. Doctors strongly recommend that a woman terminate a pregnancy if a diagnosis of a terrible disease has been identified and confirmed.
In case of contact of a pregnant woman with an infected patient, examinations are carried out several times in order to diagnose the absence of infection or to detect it.
Drug treatment of pertussis in pregnant women
If the diagnosis is made correctly, then a pregnant woman is prescribed treatment. No later than the first six weeks after the onset of cough, macrolide antibiotics are attributed: azithromycin, erythromycin or clarithromycin. The most qualitative, according to doctors, is azithromycin. This antibiotic is popular in the West.
A single dose of azithromycin for a whooping cough for a pregnant woman is 500 milligrams on the first day of treatment. The next five days, you must take 250 milligrams of medication daily. Such treatment is safe for the fetus.
For the treatment of cough in pregnant patients, only Mukaltin is shown, tablets that are made on the basis of the medicinal plant Altea. Mukaltin take one or two tablets before meals three or four times a day. The duration of treatment is two weeks.
An infant born to an infected mother, once they reach one month old, is prescribed a course of azithromycin to prevent it. This antibiotic in small children does not cause side effects.
Treatment of pertussis in pregnant women with folk remedies
Before you dwell on the choice of one or another prescription of traditional medicine for the treatment of pertussis, be sure to consult your doctor. This condition can not be neglected. Many pregnant women often trust the advice of neighbors, girlfriends and use dubious methods of treatment. Remember: what can be useful for an ordinary patient, it will be disastrous for a pregnant woman and her unborn child! So, we offer recipes of traditional medicine for the treatment of whooping cough:
- You can treat whooping cough with a mummy. The tool has a revitalizing, tonic, anti-inflammatory properties. Completely dissolve one gram of mummy in five tablespoons of warm water. Take the medicinal fluid once a day, twenty minutes before meals for ten days.
- Wash and together with the skin, rub the small black radish fruit on a fine grater. Slightly heat two teaspoons of honey. Mix honey and radish thoroughly until a thick slurry forms. Put the mixture in an even layer on a piece of cloth and place on the throat for twenty minutes. Cover the compress with an additional warmth. Compress remove and wipe the skin with any vegetable oil. Do the procedure for the night.
- Wash large black radish. Cut a hole in the middle of the fruit. Pour it with one teaspoon of honey. Cover the radish and honey with a small saucer. Let it stand overnight. The next day, the juice inside the fruit. Drain this juice with a teaspoon and drink it a few minutes before eating. Pour the honey in the radish again. A few hours later the juice will appear again. And so three times a day for two weeks.
- Grate the cabbage, beetroot with the expectation that you get one glass of the mass. Add two teaspoons of 6% vinegar and stir. Put the mixture in a dark place for two hours. Squeeze out the juice and gargle them three or four times a day.
- Crush five hundred grams of onions, add fifty grams of honey and four hundred grams of sugar. Fill the mixture with one liter of water. Boil over moderate heat for three hours. Cool it down. Take five teaspoons throughout the day until recovery.
- Three teaspoons of honey dissolved in two cups of warm water. Rinse your mouth and throat to relieve inflammation of the tonsils.
Old-timers advise pregnant women with whooping cough who are more likely to be in the fresh air near a spring with running clean water. And in the room where the patient is located, it is recommended to hang wet sheets. Connoisseurs believe that the running water and sheets, saturating the body with moisture, pull the disease out of it. To believe or not to believe? In any case, harm from such actions will not be anyone.
Doctors believe that it is imperative to be vaccinated against pertussis, because the benefits of the vaccine outweigh the risks. Whooping cough vaccine was blamed for its effect on brain damage, the sudden death of a child, and so on. All cases of charges were carefully studied, and it turned out that the vaccine had nothing to do with these problems.
So, to protect yourself from this disease, you must, above all, avoid contact with sick people. And if you are sick, strictly follow the instructions of your doctor. Take care of yourself and the unborn child!
The danger of whooping cough
Whooping cough is an acute illness that causes severe coughing attacks. The illness passes from the patient to the patient, therefore nobody is insured from this illness. Unfortunately, in the period of pregnancy, whooping cough is easier than the simple one, since the patient's immune system is greatly weakened. During this period, the possibility of infection of the future mother is especially high.
Any infectious disease at the time of waiting for replenishment in the family is dangerous with its consequences. With the formation of whooping cough in the first trimester there is a risk of improper development of the fetus. Often the disease causes complex pathologies that cannot be cured.
These diseases include hearing loss or complete deafness, a tendency to cutaneous hemorrhage, frequent bleeding and disruption of the mucous membranes, clouding of the lens of the eye, heart failure, dysfunction of the digestive tract. In addition, whooping cough in the first weeks of pregnancy is dangerous for the formation of an incorrect skeleton or damage to the entire nervous system.
Important! If whooping cough appears in early pregnancy, the doctor should eliminate all risks of complications. But unfortunately the risk of developing the wrong structure or embryo development is incredibly high.
During the second trimester, the disease becomes the cause of terrible diagnoses. In addition, an infectious disease can provoke the death of a baby, so when diagnosing whooping cough, many doctors advise abortion.
Whooping cough in the third trimester is no less dangerous, as it often becomes the main cause early childbirth or miscarriage. This is due to the strong cough that accompanies the patient throughout the course of the disease.
If during pregnancy you communicated with a sick person, it is important to pass all examinations and make sure that whooping cough infection has not occurred.
Not always whooping cough is deadly for the future mom's body. If you notice signs of the disease in time and have been treated, the risk of developing complex processes and the formation of side effects on the health of your baby is minimized.
If the treatment was incorrect or not complex, there is a risk of pneumonia. Inflammation of the lungs is not dangerous for the child, but requires urgent medical intervention.
What is this disease and how is it transmitted
Whooping cough - an acute bacterial infection, the main symptom of which is coughing attacks, accompanied by spasms. The causative agent of the disease is the bacterium bordetella, which is spread by airborne droplets. The disease occurs in the autumn-winter period, and very often it is confused with ARVI, which is accompanied by a long and severely exhausting cough. Sensitivity to infection of unvaccinated people is very high - 90%. After infection, the patient remains infectious to others for almost the entire period of the clinical course of the disease.
What is dangerous for pregnant women: the effect on the fetus
Like any infection, whooping cough and pregnancy, mothers do not combine well in this difficult period. The disease can cause the development of a future mom of such complications as:
- high blood pressure,
- heart attack
- rupture of the lung
- hernia formation in the groin.
- in the 1st trimester - spontaneous abortion,
- over long periods - oxygen starvation, which is fraught with delayed fetal development, placental abruption,
- poor weight gain of the child due to the general poisoning of the woman’s body.
The disease develops gradually, its incubation period is from 2 to 13 days. The disease itself is characterized by such symptoms:
- swollen lymph nodes
- the appearance of a small cough, gradually turning into a strong, in the form of a spasmodic attack, with the release of thick sputum,
- temperature increase
- the occurrence of rhinitis,
- the appearance of a rash of pink on the face (there are no scars and pigmentation afterwards).
In order to determine the prescription of the correct medications during pregnancy, it is necessary to diagnose the disease in a timely manner, and it is not difficult to do this in the development of specific coughing episodes. For accurate diagnosis use:
- Bacterioscopic study - A sample of mucus from the mouth and nose is examined under a microscope for the presence of microbes.
- Bacteriological examination - sowing of the same samples is placed in a nutrient medium, where microbes begin to grow, forming colonies. In this diagnostic method, the effect of drugs on bordetella is also determined.
- Linked immunosorbent assay - rapid determination of the presence of microorganisms in the mucous membrane of the pharynx and nasopharynx using the "antigen - antibody" reaction, which allows the detection of protein substances.
There are a large number of prescriptions that are used for the treatment of whooping cough in parallel with the drugs. But you need to remember that it is suitable for an ordinary patient, it can be dangerous for a woman who is waiting for a baby, therefore, before using any kind of prescription, you should always consult with your doctor. We offer you a few recipes:
- Mumiyo - 1 g is dissolved in 100 g of warm water. Consume within 10 days for 25 minutes before a meal once a day.
- Large black radish is well washed, they make a depression in the middle part and put 1 teaspoon of honey. Cover the slice with a saucer and place in a warm place for the night. The resulting juice is consumed before meals. Add again a spoonful of honey in radish and so for 15 days, three times a day.
- Plantain leaves and coltsfoot take 2 teaspoons, pine buds take 3 teaspoons. Crushed, pour 3 cups of boiling water and insist 60 minutes. Consume 3 teaspoons three times a day.
- On the grater, rub the cabbage and beets - 1 cup of the mass. Add 2 tsp of vinegar (6%). Everything is well stirred and kept in a dark place for 2 hours. Squeeze out the juice and gargle 4 times a day.
Symptoms of the disease
The development of the disease is not lightning, that is, you can notice the signs and symptoms of whooping cough in the early stages. Most often during pregnancy in women there is a significant increase in lymph nodes.
In addition, emit following clinical picture:
- whooping cough is accompanied by a strong and dry cough. It exhausts the patient and causes irritation of the mucous membrane of the throat,
- barking cough accompanied by a small amount of sputum,
- sometimes a reflex process in the form of a cough causes cessation of breathing for a few seconds, which can provoke oxygen
- severe fever,
- copious mucous discharge,
- dryness in the nasal mucosa,
- itching and irritation in the nasopharynx.
In the first stage of the development of the disease, whooping cough symptoms can be confused with signs of acute respiratory inflammation. There is an increase in body temperature, dry cough and weakness. However, whooping cough can be diagnosed by a specific and strong cough.
Whooping cough can cause bleeding from the nose, vomiting, swelling of the face, swelling of the veins.
At first, whooping cough manifests itself as a small rash. However, in the first three hours, it spreads over the entire face.
Attention! The rash is oval or round pink. If this symptom occurs, go to a medical facility as soon as possible.
After the disappearance of the rash on the patient's skin, scaling and pigmentation may occur, but the future mom may not be afraid of the formation of scars. Whooping cough does not leave visible marks on the face and body.
Vaccination to prevent pertussis
Among physicians there has long been a clear opinion that most of the pathological processes, and whooping cough refers to such, it is better to prevent than to cure. Most adults think that vaccinations made at a young age will last for a lifetime, and the disease itself is considered as a child. Adults, including women who are preparing to become mothers and who have weakened immunity, are again vulnerable to this infection, so involuntary immunization is the main means of prevention for both women in the situation and those who are just making plans for about this. Vaccination is performed with the complex DTP vaccine for whooping cough, diphtheria and tetanus.
Knowing the consequences of this dangerous disease, one should not neglect vaccination, but, in addition, good prevention of any disease will be proper nutrition, taking vitamins and daily walks in the fresh air.
Comprehensive drug treatment
To correctly diagnose the patient's disease нужно сдать кровь на анализы, а также провести глоточный посев слизи. Понять, что у беременной женщины появился коклюш без сдачи анализов невозможно.
Symptoms and treatment of whooping cough during pregnancy should be determined by highly qualified doctors. Infectious disease in this case cannot be cured on its own.
Finding out whether pertussis is dangerous during pregnancy, the expectant mother realizes the need for a comprehensive and adequate treatment. As a rule, the following procedures are assigned to a pregnant woman:
- After the diagnosis of the disease, pregnant women are prescribed strong antibacterial drugs - "Azithromycin", "Clarithromycin", "Erythromycin". With a numerous list of antibiotics, doctors believe that these drugs most effectively affect the site of the disease, but do not harm the child.
- Start taking antibiotics should be no later than the first six weeks from the onset of cough.
- The daily dose of any prescribed drug in the first day should not exceed 500 milligrams. In the subsequent dosing is reduced to half the norm.
- To get rid of strong cough pills "Mukaltin" are prescribed. The herbal composition of the drug is safe during pregnancy, so you should not replace the drug counterparts.
- A cough tablet should be taken every day thirty minutes before eating or two hours after taking a meal.
The duration of treatment is usually fourteen days If after this period a pregnant woman feels the symptoms of inflammation, re-diagnosis is required.
Even when planning a pregnancy, the future mom should take into account all possible risks and be vaccinated against infectious diseases, which also includes prick from whooping cough.
The vaccine in the form of serum allows you to get rid of the risk of developing the disease and maintain the health of the mother and child. A newborn baby should be vaccinated, as it protects the child from possible complications.
If you do not have time to get a vaccine before pregnancy, ask to put the vaccine on the third trimester. It is usually prescribed between 26 and 36 weeks.
Important! After the vaccine, antibodies arise in the pregnant woman’s body, which protect the body from possible infections.
Contraindications to vaccination are not many:
- You can not put injections in the case of progressive diseases of the nervous system.
- With seizures cramps.
- With a high body temperature.
In addition, pay attention to possible complications:
- skin redness
- puffiness at the injection site,
- slight increase in body temperature.
Keep in mind that the vaccine helps the newborn baby in the first months of life when the very first DPT vaccine is not delivered to the child.
Infectious disease during pregnancy is dangerous for the development of the embryo. Therefore, being in an interesting position, try not to be in places where people gather, strengthen your body and immune system, watch your diet and go to a medical center for any symptoms of the disease.
Remember that timely vaccination will help avoid many dangerous diseases and protect the body, not only the mother but also the baby.
Can you protect yourself from whooping cough?
It is rather difficult to avoid infection with whooping cough:
- The transmission path of infection is airborne, the whooping cough bacterium can be “obtained” when talking to a patient or a bacterium carrier. Bordetella whooping cough (the causative agent of the disease) is excreted from the body of the carrier and the patient with droplets of saliva and mucus when sneezing, coughing, talking.
- It is rather difficult to avoid contact with the source of infection - it can occur at work, in transport, in any crowded place. After all, the bacteria carrier itself does not know about its disease, since it does not manifest itself in any way.
- The susceptibility to infection is very high: in close contact, it is close to 100%. This means that almost all contacts are infected, and the subsequent development of the disease depends on the degree of protection of the body.
- Immunity decreases during pregnancy. In addition, pertussis vaccinations obtained during childhood are not saved: post-vaccination immunity lasts only for 5-12 years.
Pertussis symptoms in pregnancy
Manifestations of whooping cough in pregnant women do not differ from those in other adult patients. Whooping cough affects the respiratory tract. After an incubation period of 5-21 days, the first symptoms of the disease appear.
During pertussis, there are 3 periods:
- initial, lasting 1-2 weeks, most infectious,
- a period of convulsive cough lasting 2-3 weeks, the danger to others is gradually reduced (after 25 days from the onset of the disease, the patient is no longer contagious),
- The recovery period lasts 1-2 months.
The manifestations of the initial period of pertussis do not differ from the symptoms in case of acute respiratory infections:
- runny nose
- temperature rise,
- dry not frequent cough,
- decreased appetite
In the period of convulsive cough, a typical distinguishing feature of whooping cough appears - attacks of undesirable, unresponsive coughing, cough lasting up to 1-3 minutes.
The attack is a multiple cough tremors on the exhale with a jerky whistling breath (reprise) between them.
The frequency of attacks, depending on the severity of the disease, varies from a few per day to 40 or more in severe form.
The occurrence of seizures is associated with the irritant effect of the toxin secreted by the bacterium Borde-Zhang (the second name of the pathogen) on the mucosa of the trachea and bronchi.
The impulses enter the brain and create a constant excitement in the cough center.
Excitation is supported by the direct toxic effect of the toxin on the central nervous system.
During an attack, the pulse speeds up, blood pressure fluctuates. With a prolonged attack, nosebleeds and minor hemorrhages may occur on the sclera, under the eyes.
short-term respiratory arrest is not excluded. Such attacks, often occurring at night, exhaust and weaken a woman, make her irritable.
The attack continues for as long as the thick sputum in the form of vitreous mucus is cleared.
Attacks gradually shorten and occur less and less, and then disappear. But a single cough sometimes lasts a very long time. Not by chance, whooping cough has also received the name “hundred day cough”.
The duration of residual cough is associated with an unquenchable arousal of the cough center in the brain.
During this period, it is important to protect yourself from any other disease, as it can provoke a resumption of coughing attacks.
Consequences of whooping cough for pregnant and fetus
The most alarming issue in the development of whooping cough during pregnancy is how it will affect the course of pregnancy and the development of the fetus. The consequences depend on the duration of pregnancy at the time of infection.
When infected in the first trimester of pregnancy (especially in the first 8 weeks), when the fetal organs are laid, the risk of developmental abnormalities and deformities is very high (up to almost 100%).
Infection can trigger the following effects on the fetus:
- heart defects,
- congenital deafness
- CNS damage,
- genitourinary malformations
- abnormalities of the digestive tract.
But an increase in intra-abdominal pressure with frequent and prolonged seizures can trigger a miscarriage. It is not excluded the stillbirth of the child.
Fetal hypoxia during an attack (lack of oxygen supply) can lead to miscarriage, impaired fetal development, premature birth and the birth of an unviable child.
When establishing a reliable diagnosis of whooping cough with a combined laboratory test (bacteriological, serological and PCR), depending on the duration of pregnancy with a gynecologist, it is decided to terminate it for medical reasons.
Treatment of whooping cough during pregnancy
Pregnant women with whooping cough are treated in the hospital under the supervision of an infectious disease specialist and gynecologist.
Treatment with a preserved pregnancy depends on:
- the term of the pregnancy itself,
- the period of whooping cough,
- severity of the disease.
Treatment with antibiotics for whooping cough is advisable only in the initial period, if the diagnosis has already been made. At a later date, the use of antibiotics does not make sense, since further manifestations of the disease are associated with the toxin of the bacterium, on which the antibiotic does not act.
Moreover, although the teratogenic effect of macrolide antibiotics (Macropene, for example) has not been proven, they can only be used during the period of fetal organ harvesting in cases where the intended effect of treatment exceeds the potential risk to the fetus. Given this, an antibiotic can only be prescribed by a doctor.
Of the expectorant drugs prescribed Mukaltin, from the second trimester can be used Lazolvan to facilitate the discharge of sputum.
Pregnant women are recommended a long stay in the fresh air, walks on the shore of the reservoirs.
Fresh air and humidity must be provided indoors, so that coughing fits will occur less frequently.
Whooping cough, like other infections, can have an adverse effect on pregnancy and the fetus, depending on the duration of the disease.
It is easier to prevent its development by using DPT vaccination before the planned pregnancy.
If, however, whooping cough develops during gestation, the issue of preserving or terminating a pregnancy is decided by a gynecologist.