Diagnosis of the condition of the body is carried out using various methods, which in our time there are many. Stool analysis is a conservative way to check the condition of the gastrointestinal tract and other organs. There are several varieties of feces analysis, the method of diagnosing fecal masses is selected based on the purpose of the study, which is individual for each person. Today we will talk about how to pass feces for analysis. In the following article you will learn how to properly pass the feces.
How to collect feces for analysis
Practically for all analyzes, stools are collected in the same way (with minor clarifications for some analyzes).
The feces are collected in a dry clean glass jar with a lid or in a special container from a pharmacy. If you bought a container for the analysis of feces in a pharmacy, it has a special plastic spoon for collecting material.
The child feces collected from the pot, with a diaper or diaper, immediately after the act of defecation. Adults from carefully hygienically treated vessel or toilet bowl. For analysis, you need a small amount of feces -1-2 tsp.
It is best to pass for the analysis of morning feces. But if this is not possible. You can collect feces in the evening and store it in a carefully sealed jar or container for no longer than twelve hours on the bottom shelf in the refrigerator.
How to collect feces in a plastic container
A plastic test tube with a lid, in which there is a long stick with cotton at the end (this is a finished container with a means for collecting the material).
How to properly collect feces in a plastic container:
- wear gloves
- open the tube and get a stick with a cotton swab,
- push the buttocks apart, and hold (wipe) the tip of the wand with a cotton fleece over the skin around the anus,
- carefully, without touching any surfaces, lower the wand back into the tube,
- tightly close the lid.
How to collect feces on a special glass slide
You can also use a glass slide to collect feces.
- wear gloves
- carefully peel off the adhesive tape (we try not to touch the surface of the glass with which we have removed the adhesive tape),
- push the buttocks apart and stick the adhesive tape on the skin of the anus and surrounding areas. (stick on for 1-2 seconds)
- carefully peel off the skin and glue it back onto the slide at the same place where the tape was. (Do not touch the adhesive surface of the tape.)
What is Coptogram?
Coprogram (sometimes referred to as general stool analysis) is one of the laboratory methods for examining fecal masses, widely used in medicine for evaluating the function and diagnosis of diseases of the gastrointestinal tract.
This analysis is very informative, it helps to evaluate the motor and enzymatic function of the intestine, the state of the microflora, to suspect the inflammatory process and cancer, to detect helminths.
The main advantages of this analysis are its high information content, ease of execution, and most importantly - accessibility. Due to the immaturity of the digestive system, the coprogram in children has its own characteristics, therefore the patient’s age is indicated on the container with the material for the study.
By coprogram can be assessed:
- the presence of bile pigments in feces. Normally, stercobilin must be present,
- how well the digestive glands work, is determined by the number of crosses opposite the muscle fibers, starch, neutral fat, fatty acids, digestible fiber. The more pluses opposite each of these names, the worse the food is digested,
- there is or no inflammation in the intestines. Indicators of inflammation are the presence of pathological impurities in the feces: mucus, blood, pus - they are indicated by plus signs if they exist. Normally, they are absent in the feces. Presence in the analysis of feces is a large number of leukocytes (normally they are isolated), the presence in the analysis of feces is red blood cells. Normally, they are absent.
Intestinal epithelium - should not be normal.
- There are no parasites and their eggs in the intestines or not, norm nor one nor the other should be present in feces.
Coprogram may be affected by medications: enzyme preparations and antibiotics. The doctor who prescribes the test and then evaluates the result should know that you are taking these medications.
Self-cancel the medication before passing this analysis should not be, you should consult with your doctor about this. The analysis is usually ready the next day.
Preparing for the delivery of the coptogram
Coprogram (sometimes referred to as general stool analysis) is one of the laboratory methods for examining fecal masses, widely used in medicine for evaluating the function and diagnosis of diseases of the gastrointestinal tract.
Before submitting a coprogram, you must follow the rules:
- should not change the usual diet,
- 2 days before collecting the material, it is necessary to abandon products that can change the color of feces (beets, tomatoes, broccoli, asparagus, leafy vegetables, blueberries, cherries, prunes, etc.),
- not less than 3 days to stop taking anti-inflammatory, enzyme, antibacterial drugs, as well as those that affect the motor function of the intestine and the absorption of nutrients,
- the analysis is done no earlier than 3 days after the X-ray examination of the gastrointestinal tract with contrast agents,
- It is not recommended to collect feces for analysis in the period of menstruation, when bleeding from hemorrhoids or anal fissures, as blood can get into the feces,
- the chair must be natural, you can not resort to the use of laxatives, suppositories and enemas,
- Before passing the analysis, the doctor should be warned about recent trips abroad, especially to exotic countries.
How to collect feces for koptogramy
The faster this container is delivered to the laboratory, the more reliable the result will be. It can be stored for no more than 12 hours, in the future the material becomes unsuitable for research.
Cal for coprogram must be properly collected:
- before collecting feces, it is necessary to urinate so that urine does not get into the material for analysis, and to perform toilet of the perineum and anus area with the help of running water and soap,
- then you need to empty your intestines into a dry, clean container, from which you need to transfer 1-2 teaspoons of feces into a special container for collecting tests,
- The container must be tightly closed, the patient’s last name and age should be signed, as well as the date and time of collection.
How to pass an analysis of feces for Helicobacter pylori
In addition to observing the technical aspects of collecting material for analysis, for several days before taking stool, the following recommendations should be observed: stop taking antibiotics a week before putting on, stop drinking alcohol, food, high fiber content, and can cause discoloration in three days feces: beets, drinks with dyes, do not use rectal suppositories or ointments, do not use laxatives.
Feces for research need to properly collect:
- after defecation, part of the fecal matter must be placed in a sterile container for collecting biological material, which must be purchased in advance at a pharmacy or laboratory,
- exclude blood, urine, saliva, pus and other impurities from entering the biological material, which are likely to distort the results of the analysis,
- The container with the contents must be tightly closed and delivered to the laboratory no later than 4-5 hours before the examination.
The information content of the diagnostic test depends not only on the selected study, the quality of the equipment and the qualifications of the personnel, but also on how the patient is prepared for the analysis. Compliance with the above rules to allow the physician of laboratory diagnostics to accurately assess the patient's state of health and to draw the right conclusions in the analysis.
Terms of putting feces on dysbacteriosis
Material (feces) for intestinal dysbacteriosis is collected prior to treatment with antibacterial and chemotherapeutic drugs. For research collect freshly isolated feces.
3 - 4 days before the study, stop taking laxatives, castor and vaseline oil and stop the introduction of rectal suppositories. The feces received after an enema, and also after reception of barium (at x-ray inspection) are unsuitable for research.
Before collecting the analysis, urinate into the toilet, then by natural bowel movement collect the feces into the bedpan (make sure that urine does not enter). The bedpan is pretreated with any disinfectant, washed thoroughly with running water several times and rinsed with boiling water.
The material is delivered to the laboratory within 3 hours from the time of collection. It is advisable to store the material for a specified period of time in the cold (for this, you can use a cold pack or lay the container with ice cubes prepared in advance).
On the container, you must specify your surname, initials, date of birth, date and time of collection of the material, the record must be made in legible handwriting. The directional form must necessarily indicate the diagnosis and the date of the onset of the disease, information about taking antibiotics. When taking the material, it is necessary to observe sterility.
It is necessary to comply with the conditions of collecting feces for dysbiosis:
- freezing is not allowed,
- long storage is not allowed (more than 5 - 6 hours),
- no transport medium other than specified
- loose container is not allowed,
- biomaterial collected the day before is not subject to examination.
If possible, the collection of material for research should be carried out before the appointment of antibiotics (if not possible, then not earlier than 12 hours after discontinuation of the drug).
How to properly collect feces for rotavirus
Rotavirus infection, which received the popular name for intestinal flu, is a very common, extremely contagious and quite dangerous disease. At risk - all those who have weakened immunity - children, pregnant women, the elderly.
Even if you do not belong to them, do not think that the virus is not dangerous for you. The fact is that such universal disinfectants as bleach, for example, do not pose any threat to him at all.
Therefore, it is transmitted by airborne droplets, and with water, and with poorly washed fruits and vegetables. Therefore, the timely detection of infection, through the delivery of an analysis of feces for rotavirus, and treatment is the key to not only your health, but also the well-being of others.
Remember that the disease manifests itself almost immediately after infection in the body - after 12 hours. And it manifests itself very violently: with liquid and frequent stools, vomiting, fever. To exclude other diseases and prescribe the correct treatment, it is necessary as soon as possible to pass an analysis of feces for rotavirus.
Since analysis is often prescribed when there are all signs of the disease or at least ailments, no special preparation is required. The rules are simple: the biomaterial must be collected in a sterile container, a few grams will be enough, after which it must be delivered to the laboratory within 3 hours.
Normally, rotavirus should not be detected. In the opposite case, the doctor will immediately prescribe treatment to you as soon as possible to start the process of recovery, fight against the infection and prevent dehydration of the body that carries the greatest danger, against the background of fever and frequent stools or vomiting.
If you or your doctor have a suspicion that you or your child have a rotavirus infection, try to have a stool test for rotavirus as soon as possible. This can be done by bringing the material to any convenient department of the Health Clinic. The result and its decoding will be ready the next day.
How to properly collect feces for analysis on helminth eggs
In fact, there should be no specific preparation before taking the feces analysis for helminth eggs.
Terms of preparation for the analysis:
- urinate before collecting the material, so that urine does not get into the feces,
- it is necessary to take a clean, dry container, where the defecation will be held,
- from the material obtained, it is necessary to take 8-10 cm 3 (
2 teaspoons). The feces are taken with the help of a special "spoon" which is built into the lid of a special container, which you must give out to collect feces,
In order to obtain the most accurate data, it is strongly recommended to pass feces for analysis on helminth eggs within 30-45 minutes after defecation. You can store feces for 5-8 hours in the refrigerator, in a tightly closed container at a temperature of + 4ºС- + 8ºС. However, storage may adversely affect test results.
For analysis, it is necessary to collect 8-10 cm 3 (
2 teaspoons) of feces. It is recommended that the material obtained be taken to the laboratory as soon as possible, this will allow for the most qualitative analysis and will provide the most reliable results.
However, if you are unable to take the material as soon as possible to the laboratory, you can store the material in a refrigerator at a temperature of + 4 ° C / + 8 ° C for 8 hours. The longer the material stays in the refrigerator, the less accurate the results will be.
How to pass an analysis of fecal occult blood
It is done to detect damage to the mucous membrane of the gastrointestinal tract, accompanied by bleeding. Sometimes the bleeding is not intense, but prolonged, having a significant effect on the patient's well-being. To identify such bleeding is not easy. This can help the analysis of fecal occult blood.
For 3 days before collecting the analysis, it is necessary to remove fish, meat, tomatoes from the diet in order to exclude a false positive result. Normally, the analysis result is negative. The result is ready the next day.
How to pass a stool analysis for dysgroup
He is Bakposev, he is Bakanal. It is prescribed for acute intestinal infections to rule out or establish diagnoses: dysentery, salmonellosis, and coli infections. And also designate a contact when identifying these infections in childcare facilities, hospitals, rod.domakh, nutritional facilities.
This is seeding feces on a special nutrient medium. For sowing, you can take feces collected by the patient from a container or directly take a smear with a special cotton swab from the patient's anus. The analysis is prepared five to seven days.
Analysis of feces for trypsin
This analysis determines the activity of digestive enzymes. This analysis is judged on the activity of the enzymatic function of the pancreas.
For 3 days before the collection of analysis should stop taking enzymes. The analysis is ready the next day. The norm of analysis of feces for trypsin is 1:40 and higher (1:80, 1: 160, etc.).
Feces on conditionally pathogenic microflora
Detects microflora, which can normally live in the intestines, but sometimes over-breeds and causes discomfort in the intestines, diarrhea, constipation, rashes, etc.
The analysis of feces for conditionally pathogenic microflora is collected and prepared similarly to the analysis of feces for dysbacteriosis. The result is ready in seven or eight days.
Analysis of feces for pancreatic elastase
This study is indicated when a patient has suspected pancreatitis, diabetes, a pancreatic tumor, or there has been a trauma.
This can seriously distort the accuracy of the results. Container, filled approximately 1/3 tightly close and bring on the same day to our laboratory for further analysis.
When you can not collect feces
There are certain rules when you can not collect feces. These rules must be observed for correct diagnosis.
Feces can not be collected:
- after enema, after suppositories (laxatives or medicinal),
- mixed with urine
- while taking laxatives.
Whether it is possible to take a stool while taking antibiotics depends on the purpose of the study, this issue should be discussed with the doctor. Some indicators of antibiotics do not affect, some - radically change.
What you need to collect feces?
Some people believe that for collecting and delivering feces to a medical facility, any container, for example, a matchbox, is suitable, as in Soviet times. This is completely wrong, since bacteria and other microorganisms that are absolutely not necessary for research are contained on the surface of the first jar or box that came to hand. If you do not want to add extraneous factors to the results of your analyzes, you must purchase a special container for collecting stool from the pharmacy.
A sterile container will provide an unmistakable result when conducting research.
This is a sterile plastic container with a screw cap, into which a special miniature spatula is inserted to collect the material - so as not to touch it with improvised means, again populated by bacteria and microbes. Контейнеры для кала герметично упакованы и имеют весьма демократичную стоимость – от пяти до тридцати рублей. После того, как купленный контейнер открыт, недопустимо мыть его, протирать чем-либо, касаться руками или иными предметами внутренней поверхности.
Также для сбора анализа может потребоваться впитывающая пелёнка. They are also sold in pharmacies, it will be enough to buy one piece (the price is about fifteen rubles). The diaper is useful in order to prevent the contact of feces with the surface of the toilet. Despite the fact that you can defecate in another container, pre-disinfected, the majority of the more comfortable and more accustomed to go "big" just on the toilet.
How to collect an analysis of feces for an adult: rules for collecting
Once you have acquired the necessary sterile container, you can prepare for the collection of material. It is important to understand that you need to take fresh feces, that is, it is desirable to go to the toilet in the morning, on the day of the visit to the hospital. For adults, it is permissible to pass on the analysis of material collected in the late evening, in this case, a tightly closed container should be stored in the refrigerator.
The day before the tests, it is necessary to limit the intake of harmful or atypical food for you, if possible, to suspend the intake of vitamins, dietary supplements, medicines. It is forbidden to take alcoholic beverages, as well as products that can cause upset stools (large amounts of fruit, milk products, eat foods that are incompatible with each other). You also can not put an enema to collect material, take laxatives, use rectal suppositories.
Intimate hygiene before procedures
The first thing you need to visit the toilet to urinate. Then - go through the water treatment - wash the area of the genitals and anus with baby soap or means for intimate hygiene. After that, you need to wipe the towel thoroughly, so that the water does not get into the feces and, ultimately, does not distort the results. Women whose menstruation has fallen at the time of testing and it is impossible to postpone them should use a tampon to prevent blood from entering the collected material.
Decide in advance exactly how you feel more comfortable with the procedure. To collect material for coprograms, you can choose one of two ways:
- Use a duck or a ship, after washing them with soap and scalding with boiling water (after the tank must be thoroughly dried).
- Using the toilet, bed above the water hygienic diaper (purchased at the pharmacy).
For research suitable material stored no more than 6-8 hours
After you go to the toilet, use the spatula from the container to put a small amount of feces into it. No need to collect a full container or put in it all the feces, which was released in the process of defecation. For one study, a volume equal to a teaspoon is enough. If the doctor has prescribed you several tests and clarified that everyone needs their own material, several containers will be required, respectively.
An important point! Do not hesitate to check with the doctor who wrote you a referral for a coprogram, all the nuances and features of the procedure, the requirements for the material provided to the laboratory. Depending on the symptoms and problems with which you went to the hospital, you may need different tests of feces that have differences. If we are talking about a general analysis of feces, then the recommendations mentioned above are fully suitable for this type of study.
How and where to take feces?
As a rule, laboratories conducting analysis of a coprogram work in the morning hours (from 7:00 to 10:00), usually the doctor writes the time of arrival at the clinic on the direction. Leaf that guides you to the analysis, be sure to take with you. You also need to sign the container so that the technicians will not lose or accidentally confuse your material with another.
Some containers come complete with a white sticker, on which you need to write your last name and year of birth, and then paste it onto the container. Other containers have a special rough strip on the plastic, which is well written marker or alcohol marker.
After you come to the clinic, you can ask the workers where to put the container with the material. Usually in the corridor there are special tables on which the direction is placed, and a container with feces is placed on top of it. That is, the laboratory technician does not need to give anything personally.
How to prepare for the analysis
The analysis of feces for coprogram requires some preparation, which is necessary to obtain the most accurate results. The rules for putting coprograms are pretty simple.
First of all, it concerns rectal suppositories with a fatty basis, all kinds of bismuth preparations, laxatives, enzyme preparations, and other medicines that in one way or another can affect the functioning of the digestive system and the basic processes of digestion of the elements. On the eve of the collection of material, for about 2 days should not do enemas.
It is also important to remember that after any hardware research, including ultrasound, as well as an X-ray of the intestine or stomach, an analysis can be taken only after 2 to 3 days.
It is important to follow a special diet before taking a stool test.. Within 4 to 5 days before the material is taken for examination, the patient's menu should consist of dairy products, mashed potatoes, various cereals boiled in water or milk, white bread with natural butter, a small amount of fresh fruit and 1 to 2 eggs boiled soft-boiled You should eat 5 times a day in small portions, avoiding overeating.
Next, you will learn how to collect feces for analysis on a coprogram to get the most reliable result.
How to pass the feces on the coprogram
Collecting material for research also requires adherence to certain rules. Despite the fact that the collection requirements are quite simple, the procedure must be carried out as accurately as possible.
To properly pass a stool test for coprogram to an adult, you must:
- Fully empty the bladder, then carry out a thorough toilet of the anus and genital areas, using a neutral soap or other means for hygiene, which does not have any aromatic additives and dyes. You can use the usual laundry soap. After that, thoroughly rinse all washed areas with boiled warm water and pat dry with a paper sterile cloth.
- Empty the intestines. It is very important that the material for the study is collected after the natural self-emptying of the intestines.
- Feces should be collected in a pre-prepared sterile container with a spatula. In pharmaceutical containers designed to collect stool analysis, a special spatula is inside the package. It is necessary to collect feces from different parts of the available amount of feces.
- After the material for the study has been collected, the container must be tightly closed., attach to it a tag with the date and time of collection, as well as the name and surname of the patient.
The best way to use for the delivery of feces to a coprogram is a special plastic sterile container (container), which you can buy today at any pharmacy. Do not collect feces in wooden or cardboard boxes, as well as in the dishes for food purposes.
It is best to donate feces for research early in the morning, bringing the material to the laboratory as soon as possible after collection, because the faster the feces go on the study, the more accurate the result will be.
If the patient's body is accustomed to defecate in the evening, it is allowed to collect material for research during this period., but it must be stored until morning in a refrigerator at a temperature not higher than 5 degrees and not more than 8 hours. Remove the container to the refrigerator immediately after collecting the material and attaching the information tag to it.
In the morning it is very important to deliver the prepared container to the laboratory as soon as possible for the examination. In most cases, the results of the caprogram are ready in 2 or 3 days, but sometimes the study may take 5-6 days.
How is the coprogram performed?
During the coprogram, the physical, biochemical, and microscopic data of the material obtained for the study is evaluated.
In decoding the results of the coprogram you can see the data on:
- The appearance of the material obtained.
- The density of the investigated fecal masses.
- The smell of feces, which in the normal state should be specific.
- Color fecal masses, while their staining can be either normal or pathological.
- The presence of impurities, in particular, the remnants of undigested food, bloody blotches, veins, lumps of mucus, purulent elements.
- The possible presence of gallstones or pancreatic stones, and their selection, along with feces.
- The presence of helminths in mature form.
Microscopic examination can accurately determine the composition of fecal masses and identify possible irregularities in the organs of the digestive system by the presence of various impurities, for example, fatty acids and their salts, different types of starch, epithelial cells, muscle fiber particles with and without fiber. overcooked and undigested, as well as red and white blood cells.
It is microscopic examination that makes up the main part of the coprogram. and has the most important diagnostic value in determining the level of the digestive system and the main organs.
Biochemical study of the material obtained allows to determine the pH of the feces, the presence of hidden elements of blood, stercobilin and bilirubin in them.
How to test for worms
The results of this simple and painless examination are very informative for the doctor, who according to the complaints of the patient who applied to the patient, suspected helminthiasis. Therapists prescribe to the patient to check the feces on the eggs of helminths in various cases, because the symptoms of infection with parasites can manifest themselves very diversely. So, a person should do an analysis for worms if he has the following signs of infection:
- loss of appetite,
- frequent bloating, indigestion, constipation,
- rash on the skin of an allergic nature, its dryness,
- general fatigue and reduced immunity
- A child infected with worms may gnash his teeth during sleep.
Helminth analysis by examining feces is an effective way to identify parasites that live in the intestines. After receiving information about the type of worms that a person has infected, the doctor may prescribe the right medication. Quickly taken measures for the treatment of helminthiasis will not only stop the disease, but also prevent the introduction of parasites with blood flow to other organs of the body. In practice, in order to accurately determine the fact of helminthic invasion and the type of worms that have entered the body, an analysis of feces for helminth eggs is carried out by examining feces or taking a perianal scraping from a patient.
The study of feces on helminth eggs
This method of laboratory diagnosis is called coproovoscopy. Analysis of feces for worms is one of the simplest and at the same time very informative way to identify helminthiasis. The procedure for carrying out such an analysis involves a combination of diagnostics according to the Kato method in combination with the methods of Fulleborn or Kalantaryan. During coprooscopic examination, a thick smear of feces is stained, which makes it possible to distinguish the number of helminth eggs in feces and count their number. According to the results of this study, the doctor can judge the degree of infection of the patient with parasites.
Scraping on egglist
This analysis is an effective way to diagnose this type of infection with parasites, such as enterobiasis - parasitizing pinworms in the intestine. Often, pediatricians prescribe this diagnosis, because children are much more likely to become infected with parasites, for example, when they do not comply with hygiene requirements by eating unwashed foods. The peculiarity of the pinworm life cycle is that the females of these worms lay eggs around the human anus, so the perianal scraping gives full information about the presence of this type of parasite in the body.
In most cases, a patient takes a laboratory technician directly at a medical facility, but you can also select the material for research yourself and deliver it to the laboratory. To do this, you need to purchase a special kit in the pharmacy for collecting this analysis: a test tube with a cap and with a stick treated with a special solution for taking a smear from the perianal area.
How to collect feces for worms eggs
In order to obtain the most reliable data, the procedure for collecting stool for research should follow a few simple rules given below.
- In order for the results of the analysis to be reliable, two weeks prior to the study it is necessary to stop taking antibiotics, antiparasitic, antidiarrheal drugs.
- It is impossible to select material for research from a toilet bowl. It is necessary to make an act of defecation on a clean sheet of paper, while it is necessary to ensure that urine does not get on the feces. In order to comply with hygiene requirements, it is better to use disposable gloves when sampling.
- For the analysis, a small amount of the biomaterial is taken (about 2 tsp.), At the same time it is necessary to collect the biomaterial from different parts of the feces.
- Selected feces for worms should be placed in a clean and dry jar with a tight-fitting lid or a special plastic container. A label should be attached to the container, indicating the name and initials of the person who is taking the analysis, his date of birth and the exact time of stool collection.
- Collecting feces on the eggs of worms should not go much earlier than the time it was handed over to the laboratory. The best option - if the material is transferred to the study for 30-40 minutes after a bowel movement. If such a fast delivery is not possible, the sample is stored in a refrigerator at a temperature of 4-8 degrees, but not more than 8 hours.
- If such an analysis needs to be handed over to a baby, then it should be put on a pot, and not be taken from the diapers. Parents should also ensure that urine does not enter the stool.
Rules for the collection of feces for analysis
Few people know that the analysis of feces can show false results if we ignore the rules of its fence, and, therefore, it will certainly affect the diagnosis and the effectiveness of the course of treatment. Many people still do not realize how important it is to take a responsible approach to the selection of sterile containers for feces and properly collect the necessary material so that the laboratory technician can accurately determine all the necessary indicators.
How to collect feces?
If you want the diagnosis based on the results of the feces analysis to be reliable, then you should familiarize yourself with the rules for taking the material and strictly follow them. How to properly collect feces for analysis?
1 First of all it should be understood that the material delivered to the laboratory should be obtained only as a result of natural bowel movement. It is forbidden to use any methods and preparations to speed up the process. So forget about the existence of enemas, rectal suppositories and laxative medicines. As a result of their use, both the composition of fecal masses and their quality indicators change. At the same time, the remnants of food do not pass their way in a natural way, this process is significantly accelerated, which means they are not digested as expected. The use of laxatives should be stopped no later than three before the intake of feces.
2 It is undesirable to donate feces to the laboratory, which was collected the day before, namely more than 4-5 hours ago. But the thing is that some microorganisms live exclusively in fresh stool masses, so in the old material they may not be found, which will certainly affect the reliability of the result. If you collect the morning feces does not come out, then evening material is allowed, but laboratory technicians should be warned about this feature.
3 A few days before the tests, you should stop taking any medications and refuse to conduct an x-ray study, since these factors can significantly distort the results.
4 It is extremely important to follow the dietary guidelines before taking the tests. Some foods can affect the analysis result. These include beets, coffee, cabbage, legumes and other foods that can enhance the gas formation process, color the stool or cause constipation or diarrhea.
5 Women should be tested if they coincide with monthly bleeding. If this is not possible, then it is necessary to use a tampon to exclude the ingress of bleeding into the material for analysis.
As you can see all the rules are quite simple and doable. Observing them you can be sure that the result of the analysis will be as reliable as possible.
Types of stool tests
There are several types of examination of fecal masses depending on the purpose of the study:
Clinical tests of feces include:
1 coprogram - cumulative description of physical, chemical and microscopic examination of feces,
2 examination of feces for the presence of helminth eggs and enterobiasis,
3 анализ кала на содержание лямблий.
Биохимические анализы кала подразделяют на:
1 исследование каловых масс на примеси крови,
2 обследование фекалий на содержание фермента поджелудочной железы — трипсин.
Бактериологический анализ каловых масс состоит из следующих исследований:
1 BAK seeding feces on the intestinal group,
2 analysis of fecal masses for imbalance of microflora.
In our article we will consider in detail the types of studies of fecal masses in childhood, as well as the rules for collecting feces for maximum reliability of the result.
The procedure for collecting the material, how to collect feces for analysis?
Collect feces for analysis is necessary in a certain way. In the morning, during the act of defecation should be selected from the total mass of feces about 5-20 grams. It is very convenient to do this with a special spoon, which is equipped with a sterile jar for analysis. Cal must be fresh and free of impurities. The selected material must be placed in a jar, tightly closed and sign your data, after which the feces are handed over to the laboratory assistant, who will analyze its properties.
Analysis of feces, which allows you to evaluate the work of the digestive system is called a coprogram. It allows you to evaluate diagnose:
1 disturbances in the functioning of the digestive tract, liver, pancreas and intestines,
2 inflammatory processes in the digestive tract,
3 imbalance of intestinal microflora,
4 the presence of worms.
How to store feces for analysis?
Many people do not empty their intestines early in the morning, in which case it is allowed to collect feces the night before and keep it properly until transferred to the laboratory assistant. The material must be placed in a sterile container and refrigerated. If these conditions are met, feces can be stored for no longer than 20 hours, during which all microorganisms will remain viable.
Properly collect material for analysis is quite simple. In this case, you can be sure that compliance with all conditions is a guarantee of obtaining a reliable research result.
Analysis of feces for coprogram - what is it that shows
A coprogram or, in other words, a general analysis of feces allows you to diagnose abnormalities in the work of many internal organs, so this study is assigned to identify abnormalities typical of certain diseases, for example:
1 colitis of different etiology,
3 inflammatory processes and so on.
The analysis of feces for coprogram is not carried out without the presence of certain indications, only in the presence of the patient's complaints of stool disorders, constipation, increased gas formation or pain in the abdomen.
General analysis of feces, what is it that shows?
Examination of feces allows to identify:
1 Deviation from the normal amount of stercobilin - a bile pigment that forms in the large intestine during the processing of bilirubin. It is thanks to him that feces become a natural brown color.
2 Malfunctions of the digestive glands. The result of the analysis is a certain amount of advantages that the laboratory technician puts in front of such indicators as fatty inclusions, undigested muscle fibers, fiber residues, and starch. Depending on the amount of these components, the doctor can determine the degree of disturbance of the digestive process.
3 The presence of an inflammatory process, indicated by the presence of impurities of pus, blood or mucus. The more positive signs opposite these indicators the laboratory technician puts, the more serious the patient's condition.
4 The presence of a large number of leukocytes. Normally, in a healthy person, they can be found in single specimens, if their number exceeds normal levels, then this may indicate the development of the inflammatory process.
5 The presence of red blood cells in the feces. If they are present, the patient will most likely experience one of the following ailments: polyps, anal fissure, ulcerative lesions of the large intestine, and others.
6 Detection in the fecal masses of the intestinal epithelium - the cells that line the intestinal mucosa. Normally, it may be the minimum amount, this is due to the process of physiological desquamation.
7 The presence of worms, as well as their eggs. In a healthy person, they should not be present in the stool.
Analysis of fecal masses per coprogram is carried out within one working day. If the patient undergoes treatment with the use of any drugs, he must inform the doctor about it, because the interpretation of the research results depends on it.
Analysis of feces on Giardia
The indications for conducting this examination in childhood are allergic rashes for no apparent reason, low body weight and disorders in the work of the digestive tract. The feces for analysis must be fresh, not older than two hours, so it is advisable to collect it before lunchtime and to deliver it to the laboratory as soon as possible. Evening feces, even kept in the fridge, is completely uninformative. More chances to find the lamlia will be, if you pass on the analysis of feces from the last portion and mucus (if present).
The study of feces for the presence of Giardia is carried out during the day. In the absence of Giardia, the result of the analysis will be marked as negative. However, for a more reliable result, it is recommended to conduct at least three such studies.
Analysis of fecal occult blood
Hidden call the blood to the feces, which does not change its color and can not be detected by macro - and microscopic methods. The analysis of feces for the presence of hidden blood allows you to diagnose pathology of the mucous membrane of the digestive tract, which provoke internal bleeding and cause the patient a sense of general weakness.
Subject to all the rules of preparation for the study, the laboratory will be able to identify even minimal disturbances in the work of the digestive system. The preparatory stage should begin no later than three days before the delivery of feces for analysis. First of all, it is necessary to completely eliminate from the diet dishes with fish, meat and tomatoes, which will eliminate false positive results. In addition, it is forbidden to put enemas and take any medications that affect intestinal motility or that can stain fecal masses.
Analysis of feces on the eggs of the worm - what is it that shows
The presence of parasites in the body is quite a frequent occurrence, especially in childhood, so children often have feces analyzed for the presence of pinworm eggs and ascaris, Giardia cyst, and also tapeworm segments. In a normal child, these indicators should be negative.
This analysis is mandatory when a child enters kindergarten or after a long absence from a preschool institution. In addition, the study of feces for the presence of helminth eggs should be taken before going to school, swimming pool or children's camp. The study is conducted within one working day, and the certificate can be used no later than ten days from the date of its receipt, otherwise a reanalysis will be required.
How to prepare for the delivery of feces?
In order for the result of the analysis to be as reliable as possible, the patient needs to properly prepare for it. Preparation begins a few days before collecting the material and, as a rule, presents no difficulties. The main condition for the delivery of feces for the study is that the process of defecation should not be stimulated with an enema or medication, otherwise the analysis will not be reliable.
The fact is that the acceleration of natural bowel movements will necessarily affect the quality indicators of feces, which will prevent to establish the correct diagnosis. For example, an underdeveloped feces may contain a large amount of starch and fat, which is a consequence of pancreatitis. However, the diagnosis may well be erroneous, because in the case of natural defecation, the patient's feces may not contain these components.
It should be remembered that the use of laxative drugs should be excluded at least three days before the collection of material for research, in this case, the results of the study will be as accurate as possible. If the patient takes any drugs that affect the functioning of the digestive tract, then this should be warned to the attending physician. Most likely they will need to be temporarily abandoned.
In addition, an X-ray examination of the gastrointestinal tract can affect the reliability of the result, which is why it is necessary to take feces for analysis no earlier than two days after it. A few days before collecting the material for analysis, the patient should review his diet in favor of dairy products, seasonal fruits and vegetables, cereals and eggs. Food that contributes to the occurrence of flatulence, diarrhea, or constipation, as well as those foods that can stain fecal masses, are banned.
How to properly collect feces for a hologram?
Collecting feces for analysis, regardless of the purpose of the study, should be carried out, following all the rules, otherwise the result may be unreliable. These rules apply not only to adults, but also to newborn babies. First you need to purchase a special sterile container in a pharmacy, or find a suitable jar at home and wash it thoroughly and heat it.
It is much more convenient to use a finished sterile container, since it is equipped with a special spatula, which is very convenient to select material from the total mass. Do not take feces for analysis from one place, because its components may be unevenly distributed. It is better to separate a small amount in several places. For example, helminth eggs are often localized only in a specific place, while the rest of the feces will be clean.
In the presence of obvious impurities of blood or mucus, they must be placed in a container for analysis. This will allow for the most reliable diagnosis of various gastrointestinal diseases. Distortion of the results of the analysis can provoke the urine, trapped in the stool, so experts recommend emptying the bladder in advance. Women in the period of menstrual bleeding should take all precautions to prevent discharge into feces.
How to prepare for the analysis of feces? There is nothing difficult in this procedure. How to pass an analysis of feces, known to most of us.
For this you will need:
- clean dry container
- spatula (wand).
A glass or plastic bottle will be suitable for collecting feces (always with a cap). You can purchase a special sterile container in a pharmacy. A spatula is mounted in its cover to collect material, which is very convenient. For laboratory studies, usually 10-15 ml of feces is enough, there are about one or two teaspoons.
How to prepare for the analysis and collect the material? Adhere to the following rules:
- Feces must be fresh.
- The presence of other substances is unacceptable in the sample.
- Do not overeat before passing feces.
- Refuse to take medicine before analysis.
Stick to these requirements. Compliance with simple rules will allow you to get a reliable result. Consider in more detail how to pass a stool analysis.
The best material is freshly collected feces. You need to collect it in the morning. If for some reason this is not possible, then store the mass before putting in the refrigerator, but not more than 8-12 hours.
The purity of the material taken affects the result of the analysis. Before you collect feces, you must first urinate, and then wash with soap and water. The collection container must be dry and clean, and in some cases, always sterile. Water and urine are not allowed in the sample. Women during menstruation donate feces is not recommended to avoid blood. In extreme cases, before you pass the analysis of feces, you need to thoroughly wash and use a swab. It is better to empty the intestines into a vessel, pot, or other clean dish. You can put a clean plastic bag on the toilet for this purpose.
Follow the diet before taking a stool test. Eaten foods can affect the result. Therefore, before analyzing, try not to eat foods that cause an upset gastrointestinal tract. Some foods may change the color of feces. For example, blueberry stains the chair black and beetroot red. From the reception of such products is better to refuse.
Drugs affect the test result. It is better not to use them before passing feces. Medicines that contain bismuth, iron, copper, and also activated charcoal change the color of feces. It is undesirable to take antibiotics, since they greatly affect the vital activity of microorganisms. Discard various laxatives and rectal suppositories with fatty base before collecting stool analysis. Making enemas is also not recommended. People who took the drug barium during the radiopaque examination, can pass the feces after two days. During this time, substances containing the specified element will be released from the body.
How to take feces for analysis from a child
Collect feces in adults is much easier than in children, especially in infants. Many mothers are tormented by the question of how to pass an analysis of feces. The child should be laid on the oilcloth or a clean, ironed diaper. Massage his abdomen to stimulate the bowel movement.
You can turn the baby on the stomach. Experts do not recommend scrapping feces from diapers. But if it does not work out differently, then collect only the top layer, which does not touch the diaper. At the same time in the feces should not be urine. If your baby has constipation, you can get a bowel movement with a gas vent. In the presence of a liquid stool in a child, it will be easier to collect feces from a reusable diaper. Spread the oilcloth under the baby and wait. How to pass an analysis of feces to the baby, you can check with your pediatrician or nurse.
In older children, the material is easier to take. For this fit pot. It should be cleaned with soap and water. Do not use aggressive detergents for disinfection.
Where to pass an analysis of feces
Stool tests that do not require long-term laboratory tests can be taken at the clinic in the community. To do this, your doctor must write a referral. It is necessary to hand over the analysis of feces to the laboratory in the morning. The result will be ready during the day.
More complex tests, which require the seeding of microorganisms, are handed over in special laboratories. There is everything you need to create certain conditions for the growth of bacteria. The results of such analyzes are usually ready in 5-7 days.
A variety of tests are taken in private medical centers. This is very convenient, as it is possible to pass an analysis of feces for various studies in one place.
We hand over the analysis for dysbacteriosis
This analysis is needed to determine the intestinal microflora. The feces for such a study must be fresh, since some microorganisms may die during storage. The material is taken only in a sterile jar, which can be purchased at the pharmacy. In some laboratories such capacity is given out. It is easy to pass stool analysis for dysbacteriosis, if you adhere to the basic requirements for collecting material. Follow the diet, limit the intake of drugs, especially antibiotics.
Feces for occult blood test
To determine the hidden bleeding in the organs of the gastrointestinal tract prescribe this type of analysis.
The presence of blood is determined by the hemoglobin content in the feces. Before collecting stool analysis, they exclude meat and fish dishes, as well as products containing a large amount of iron from the menu for three days: apples, spinach, bell pepper and others. The use of enemas and drugs before passing the analysis is unacceptable.
Analysis of feces for intestinal infections
To determine the various infections in the gastrointestinal tract, a stool analysis tank is prescribed. How to take it, you must explain to your doctor. Such a study allows to establish the causative agents of the disease, to identify various pathogenic bacteria and sticks.
A sample of feces will require a sterile container, since microorganisms from the external environment may affect the result of the analysis. It is prohibited to take antibiotics before collecting the material.
Collect feces on scatology
Coprological study allows you to check the work of the digestive system and evaluate what happens during digestion metabolism. It is necessary to collect material for this analysis from different sites. If mucus, fibers, heterogeneous parts are observed in feces, take them for analysis. For the rest adhere to the general principles of collecting material.
As you can see, everything is simple. It is enough to know for which analysis it is necessary to collect feces, and properly prepare. In any case, your doctor must explain how to make the necessary manipulations. If for some reason the doctor does not do this, do not hesitate to ask him yourself.
How to collect feces for analysis correctly
A general analysis of feces is prescribed as part of a comprehensive preventive examination, it gives a general picture of the health status of the intestine and some other parts of the digestive system, and makes it possible to diagnose inflammatory and other diseases of the gastrointestinal tract and dysbiosis. Анализ кала необходим при подозрении на синдром нарушения всасывания в кишечнике.With the help of a coprogram, the acid-forming, motor function of the stomach and duodenum, the enzymatic function of the digestive tract organs are examined, intestinal parasites are detected, the nature and approximate localization of the pathology is determined.
Careful adherence to the rules of preparation and the technique of collecting material in many ways affects the accuracy of the result of the coprogram.
Before a bowel movement it is recommended to empty the bladder, then thoroughly wash the external genitals. For hygienic procedures it is better to use soap without foaming additives or fragrances. To prevent urine and water from entering the stool, wipe the moisture thoroughly with a towel.
In advance, you should prepare the container in which the analysis of feces will be delivered to the laboratory. This may be a sterile glass jar with a tight-fitting lid, but it is best to use a special plastic container for collecting feces with a spatula embedded in the lid (sold in a pharmacy). In advance, you need to take care of the capacity from which feces will be collected for analysis. It can be a dry and clean vessel, it can also be attached to the surface of the toilet with plastic wrap. After defecation 10-15 g of feces with a spatula are selected in cooked dishes. It is important not to forget to sign the container before handing it over to the laboratory.
A week before the research on eggs of the worm, it is necessary to stop taking anti-parasitic drugs, iron, barium, bismuth, anti-diarrheal and antacid drugs, to limit the intake of fatty foods.
Is it possible to collect material for analysis in the evening and hand it over to the laboratory in the morning? This option is acceptable, but it should be noted that it is recommended to deliver the biomaterial to the laboratory no later than 8 hours after its collection. In this case, a container with a sample of evening feces is recommended to be stored at home in a refrigerator, at a temperature of +3 to +5 ºС. You can not freeze yesterday's material. How long can you store collected feces in the refrigerator? Feces for general analysis can be left on the middle shelf of the refrigerator for 6–8 hours.
It is forbidden to collect material for research earlier than two days after the X-ray contrast study of the digestive tract (irrigoscopy, barium passage). Women in the period of menstruation is better to refrain from putting feces for the study, but if the period of analysis can not be transferred, use a vaginal tampon during a bowel movement.
A chair designed for testing should be formed naturally, and no enema or laxative should be used. Three days before collecting feces, it is recommended to exclude drugs that affect peristalsis, composition and color of feces (sorbents, antibiotics, contrast agents, agents for motility, rectal suppositories).
On the eve of the feces analysis, it is necessary to exclude from the diet foods that contribute to the change of color of feces (tomatoes, beets, rhubarb), excessive gas formation in the intestines, diarrhea or constipation.
Analysis of feces on helminth eggs
A week before the study, it is necessary to stop taking anti-parasitic drugs, iron, barium, bismuth, anti-diarrheal and antacid drugs, to limit the intake of fatty foods. Samples of feces must be taken from different areas of feces: central, upper and lateral. The minimum sample volume of feces is about two teaspoons. A single test for eggs does not always reveal parasites in the faeces; therefore, it is recommended to take several repeated tests with an interval of no more than 3-5 days. The study of feces on Giardia is carried out for a month every week.
When analyzing opisthorchiasis, there are difficulties in diagnosing the early stage of the disease. For greater reliability of detection of helminth cysts, it is recommended to take feces in greater quantities than in other studies.
A study on enterobiasis allows you to more accurately identify the presence or absence of pinworm eggs. To obtain reliable results, it is not necessary to clean the anus area and empty the intestines before collecting the material. A plastic container with a long cotton swab is suitable for collecting material. With a tip of a cotton swab, take a scraping from the perianal folds, carefully lower the wand into the container and close the lid tightly. To obtain the most accurate results, a triple analysis was recommended.
Bacteriological analysis of feces
Analysis of feces in the intestinal group allows you to determine the presence of pathogens of the intestinal infection. Also, bacteriological examination allows to determine the sensitivity of the identified infectious agent to antibacterial drugs. Three days before the study, it is necessary to stop taking antibiotics, iron supplements, laxatives, and rectal suppositories. It is recommended to exclude from the diet of meat dishes, do not take alcohol. The collection of material is carried out in a special sterile container (container). To eliminate the error and get reliable results, you should take a stool three times.
A chair designed for testing should be formed naturally, and no enema or laxative should be used.
Collection of feces for analysis in children
To collect material from infants, a diaper or oilcloth is used. If the feces liquid, it can be poured from a diaper or oilcloth in a jar. When constipation to stimulate bowel movement in newborns, you can massage the abdomen, and in some cases, the rectal venting tube can help to cope with the problem.
If the child already goes to the pot on his own, the same rules of the technique of collecting material as in adults are observed. Before collecting feces, the pot should be cleaned without using disinfectants and cleaning products.
The indicators determined in the analysis of feces
Normally, fecal masses have a cylindrical shape and a compacted uniform consistency, the color of feces may have different shades of brown, the water content in the feces is about 80%. The smell of feces in a healthy person is unpleasant, but not fetid. With a normal diet, the feces reaction is neutral or slightly alkaline.
Microscopic examination makes it possible to determine the presence in the feces of connective tissue, muscle fibers, neutral fats and acids, plant fiber and starch. In normal digestion, there is no connective tissue in the feces analysis, feces do not contain neutral fats and fatty acids, small amounts of muscle fibers may appear after eating meat. Digestible fiber is normally not detected, the amount of indigestible plant fiber depends on the nature of the food. Starch grains in the feces of a healthy person are missing.
During the analysis, a sample of stool masses is checked for the presence of blood, mucus, pus, yeast fungi, crystalline formations, the presence of parasite eggs is determined.
On the eve of taking a stool test, you should exclude from the diet foods that cause discoloration of feces, excessive gas formation in the intestines, diarrhea or constipation.
Chemical research includes detection of protein, bilirubin, blood corpuscles, stercobilin, reveals the amount of cell suspension (erythrocytes, leukocytes, and epithelial cells) in feces. Normally, in a healthy person, erythrocytes are absent in the feces, single cells of leukocytes and a small number of cells of the flat and cylindrical intestinal epithelium can occur.