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Hypothyroidism - a disease that develops with insufficient production of thyroid hormones

In this case, the symptoms signaling the malfunction of this organ can be very much. With a lack of any hormone, this is manifested in the female and male half of the population in the form of a strong slowness. A person becomes less active, gets tired quickly, there is complete apathy to everything, memory is disturbed, back pain appears. In the case of an excess of hormones, the process proceeds in the opposite direction, aggression, irritability appear, the person becomes very fussy, sleep is disturbed, excessive emotionality. Many people confuse these symptoms with simple overwork, and in many cases they are, but it is never superfluous to undergo the necessary tests.

With a lack of hormones, it is quite difficult to identify the problem by the symptoms. The symptoms of this disease can hide under similar diseases. Many patients demonstrate the presence of neurological symptoms, while others demonstrate the opposite of arterial hypertension, and both symptoms may indicate the same disease. Many in the form of symptoms manifested indigestion, similar to poisoning. There are constipation, nausea, vomiting, flatulence. Therefore, the symptoms may be different and each person manifests in his own way, it is important to detect them in time.

In both women and men, a lack of hormone can manifest itself with a number of different symptoms, which makes it difficult to identify the problem quickly.

Let's consider the main symptoms that indicate the presence of a lack of a hormone in the body:

  • Forgetfulness, apathy, slowness, inability to concentrate attention,
  • Depressive states
  • High irritability
  • The appearance of hoarseness in the voice,
  • An increase in goiter in the neck,
  • Dry throat causing pain,
  • Difficulties in swallowing,
  • Persistent cramps
  • Swollen eyelids,
  • Unreasonable weight gain
  • Skin pigmentation, along with dryness.

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Causes of hypothyroidism

Often the problem develops on the background of complications from viral and infectious diseases. However, the cause of the disease of the thyroid gland can be found in violation of the hypothalamus and pituitary, brain areas responsible for metabolism and the production of hormones in the thyroid gland.

Brain tumors disrupt the synthesis of hormones and lead to hypothyroidism.

Problems with the synthesis of hormones are caused by inflammation of the thyroid gland, knots, radioactive effects, iodine deficiency, environmental pollution, and enthusiasm for diets.

Consequences of reduced hormone synthesis

In pregnant women, hypothyroidism can lead to miscarriage, abnormal development, and other problems. Newborns in mothers suffering from thyroid disease are stunted in growth, physical, mental and cognitive development. In severe cases cretinism develops.

Adults with low thyroid hormone synthesis suffer from heart disease and problems associated with the nervous system. Low hormone production can lead to atherosclerosis, hypertension and cerebrovascular diseases.

School-age children with reduced thyroid function, are lagging behind in school, are passive, suffer from excess weight, they have poor memory and poor concentration of attention.

Treatment of reduced thyroid function

If you find problems with the thyroid, the endocrinologist prescribes laboratory tests for hormone levels, ultrasound and other procedures that allow you to make the correct diagnosis. Prescribed replacement therapy drugs are taken for life. These are hormonal preparations Triiodtironin, Tirek and others. Often, endocrinologists prefer L-thyroxine, which is easily and quickly split in the body to the level of the hormone triiodothyronine.

The dosage of drugs is chosen by the doctor individually, taking into account the peculiarities of the course of the thyroid disease, history, sex and age of the patient.

Patients who are registered with the endocrinologist should regularly come to the consultation to control the level of hormones and dosage of drugs. Patients should be regularly monitored for cholesterol and do an electrocardiogram.

Older patients who have, in addition to problems with the thyroid gland, diseases of the cardiovascular system, should take drugs adrenoblockers, for example, Anaprilin. Adrenergic blockers reduce the effect of hormones on the heart.

Diseases of the thyroid gland are often accompanied by a decrease in immunity and the general weakness of the body, therefore, in addition to the main drugs, patients are prescribed vitamins and a special diet. Generally, an additional intake of vitamins of groups A and B is required, especially with low hemoglobin.

Easily digestible, fiber-rich foods should be included in the diet of patients with reduced thyroid function. It should be limited to fried, fatty and fast foods. It is undesirable to use foods that cause thirst, since excessive drinking leads to edema, salted fish, pickles, pickled products are excluded. You should also limit the eggs, lard, butter and fat sour cream.

The consequences of untreated hypothyroidism

Myxedema and oncology are among the most serious consequences of this thyroid disease.

Symptoms of severe stage (myxedema):

  • low blood pressure
  • reduced body temperature
  • mucosal swelling,
  • labored breathing,
  • coma.

What causes untreated thyroid problems in children of school age:

  • short stature
  • late teething of permanent teeth,
  • cognitive lag
  • lag in mental and sexual development.

Fatal thyroid hypothyroidism leads to death in older people, the cause of death is hypothyroid coma.

Disease prevention

An important role in the prevention of hypothyroidism is played by the correct and timely treatment of viral and infectious diseases, toxicosis of expectant mothers, and early diagnosis of newborns.

Timely treatment of thyroiditis allows reducing the percentage of complications in patients and improving their quality of life.

Proper nutrition, taking vitamins and iodine-containing remedies, in places where iodine does not help much in the environment, also helps reduce the number of patients with hypothyroidism.

Thyroid

This endocrine organ, which is the largest in the composition of the hormone-producing system, is located in the anterior neck region, encompasses the respiratory neck almost from all sides except the posterior one. Most often consists of two oval lobes connected by a jumper. Sometimes there is a third pyramidal lobe.

The thyroid gland is responsible for the production of three hormones:

  • triiodothyronine (T3),
  • thyroxine (tetraiodothyronine, T4),
  • calcitonin.

The first two belong to the thyroid group and are produced by follicles, vesicles in the tissues of the thyroid gland, filled with a gel-like substance. C-cells are responsible for the synthesis of calcitonin. The objectives of this hormone is to reduce the level of calcium and phosphorus.

The level of blood flow in the tissues of the thyroid gland is much higher than, for example, in muscle tissues about 50 times. This is due to the huge number of blood-carrying vessels in the body of this endocrine organ and the presence in the immediate vicinity of the carotid artery and the internal jugular vein. The activity of the thyroid gland is regulated by the hypothalamic-pituitary complex, as well as other parts of the endocrine system.

Consequences of thyroid hormone deficiency

The state of reducing the level of thyroid hormones in the body is very quickly captured by the hypothalamus, which sends the command to the pituitary gland to activate the synthesis of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH).

This hormone is responsible for stimulating the production of T3 and T4. And in the case of the inability of the thyroid to provide a sufficient level of thyroid hormone, disruptions in the work of metabolic processes and a decrease in the activity of almost all systems and organs begin. At first, this happens unnoticed, but subsequently this violation aggravates the condition. This condition is called hypothyroidism.

The most unpleasant thing in a disease such as hypothyroidism is the difficulty of diagnosing it, since often the primary symptoms of a pathology are taken as part of the symptoms of completely different diseases.

The continuation of these pathological processes are such symptoms as:

  • slower reactions
  • reduction of intellectual and physical activity
  • lethargy,
  • drowsiness,
  • sluggishness, which is often confused with the degree, especially in old age.

With further development of the pathology are observed:

  • emotional dystrophy,
  • reduced reflexes
  • numbness of arms and legs
  • violation of the senses,
  • memory impairment
  • impossibility of long concentration.

Hypothyroidism is most dangerous in infancy, especially in its congenital form, which, if not diagnosed and treated late, can develop into cretinism, which can no longer be cured.

An insufficient amount of hormones causes disturbances in all body systems.

Exchange processes

Violation of metabolic processes due to lack of thyroid hormones, most often expressed in a sharp increase in body weight. This is due to a violation of the processes of splitting fats and fluid metabolism. Negative changes in the processes of regulation of body temperature are expressed in the periodic feeling of chills and cold limbs. Also, the manifestation may be constantly reduced body temperature - about 35 ° C.

Gastrointestinal tract

For the gastrointestinal tract, the consequences are expressed by the following conditions: persistent constipation, gallstone disease, stones in the stool, enlarged liver, dysfunction of the contraction of the gall bladder. Such conditions are aggravated by frequent vomiting and malfunction of taste buds. The dysfunction of the absorption of iron by the gastrointestinal tract leads to the development of an acute form of anemia, and the disturbed blood formation process caused by it.

The cardiovascular system

The most frequent reaction of the thyroid gland itself to a decrease in the synthesis of its own hormones is the buildup of tissues, which in some cases makes it possible to catch signs of incipient hypothyroidism. This is due to the fact that the increase in size is often accompanied by such symptoms as unpleasant sensations in the process of swallowing, a disturbance in the timbre of the voice, impaired diction.

People notice problems with the cardiovascular system, such as an abnormal heart rhythm and blood pressure.

Reproductive system

A decrease in thyroid hormone levels is also reflected in the reproductive system. In women, thyroid insufficiency is expressed in problems with menstruation, in rare cases, bleeding from the uterus. This can affect both the course of pregnancy and, in general, the ability to have a child. In men, there may be a decrease in libido, erectile dysfunction and even infertility. Also, men may be obese by the type of female figure: to have the so-called cherub-like.

Effects of Calcitonin Deficiency

As mentioned above, in addition to thyroid hormones, the thyroid gland is responsible for the production of the hormone calcitonin. The main purpose of this hormone is to regulate the content of calcium and phosphorus in the body. Under the action of calcitonin, calcium is deposited in the bone tissue, where it counteracts substances whose task is to destroy the bones. However, this is not all. Another goal of calcitonin is to block the release of calcium from the bones.

The importance of this feature is most noticeable:

  • when carrying a child
  • during lactation
  • in the period of rapid development in children, when the need for this microcell is highest.

Reducing the ability to produce calcitonin can cause osteoporosis, which causes a decrease in bone density and loosening.

If we talk about the abnormal content of calcitonin and the consequences of this, then the following picture emerges. Low levels of this hormone are often observed in women after menopause and, as mentioned above, can lead to osteoporosis. Highly elevated levels of calcitonin can signal the development of malignant tumors in the tissues of the thyroid gland. Low levels of this thyroid hormone can occur if there is not enough calcium in the body and vice versa.

Therefore, the violation of their synthesis can lead to very serious negative and sometimes even deplorable consequences. Therefore, for any symptom of such a condition of the thyroid gland, you need to consult an endocrinologist for a complete examination and, if necessary, resort to the prescribed treatment. The main thing to remember is not to try to self-medicate in any way. Without the supervision of an experienced doctor, it can be costly for health.

Diseases of the pituitary gland

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The pituitary gland is the most important gland in the human body. The task of the gland is to produce hormones that will regulate the production of other hormones, thereby maintaining a normal state of the body. With a deficiency or an excess of pituitary hormones, a person develops various diseases.

The lack of organ function leads to the following diseases:

  • hypothyroidism
  • dwarfism
  • diabetes insipidus
  • hypopituitarism.

An overabundance of hormones provokes the development of:

  • hyperthyroidism
  • hyperprolactinemia,
  • gigantism or acromegaly,
  • Itsenko - Cushing's disease.

Various factors affect the functioning of the gland.

Lack of hormones provoke:

  • brain surgery,
  • acute or chronic impairment of blood circulation in the brain,
  • irradiation
  • hemorrhage in the brain tissue,
  • head injuries,
  • congenital damage to the pituitary gland,
  • brain tumors that squeeze the pituitary gland,
  • inflammatory diseases of the brain (meningitis, encephalitis).

The cause of hyperfunction of the gland is most often a pituitary adenoma - a benign tumor. Such a tumor provokes headaches and impairs vision.

Symptoms of diseases associated with lack of gland function

  1. Hypothyroidism is a disease in which there is a decrease in the work of the thyroid gland. The main symptoms: constant fatigue, weakness in the hands, low mood. Dry skin, brittle nails, headaches and muscle aches.
  2. Dwarfism. The first signs of the disease are found only in the second or third year of life. The child is slowing growth and physical development. With the treatment started on time, normal growth can be achieved. During puberty, such people should take sex hormones.
  3. Diabetes insipidus is manifested by frequent urination and thirst. During the day a person can produce up to 20 liters of urine. The reason for all the lack of hormone vasopressin. Treatment can lead to full recovery, but it does not always happen.
  4. Hypopituitarism is a disease in which the production of hormones in the anterior pituitary gland is impaired. Symptoms of the disease will depend on which hormones are produced in small quantities. Women, like men, may suffer from infertility. In women, the disease manifests itself in the absence of menstruation, in men - in the form of impotence, a decrease in the number of sperm, and testicular atrophy.

Symptoms of diseases associated with an excess of pituitary hormones

  1. Hyperprolactinemia is a disease that often causes infertility in women and men. One of the main signs is the release of milk from the mammary glands in both women and men.
  2. Gigantism arises due to an overabundance of growth hormone. A sick person reaches 2 meters in height, his limbs are very long, and his head is small. Many patients suffer from infertility and do not live to old age, as they die from complications.
  3. Acromegaly also occurs due to an overabundance of growth hormone, but the disease develops after the growth of the body is complete. The disease is characterized by an increase in the facial part of the skull, hands, feet. The treatment is aimed at reducing the function of the pituitary gland.
  4. Itsenko's disease — Cushing. Serious disease that is accompanied by obesity, high blood pressure, decreased immunity. In women with this disease, the mustache grows, the menstrual cycle is disturbed, infertility develops. Men suffer from impotence and decreased sexual desire.

Diagnostics

If you suspect a disease of the pituitary gland, a person needs to contact an endocrinologist. This is a doctor who treats all hormonal disorders in humans. Во время первой встречи доктор узнает жалобы больного, наличие у него хронических заболеваний и наследственных предрасположенностей. После этого врач назначит прохождение медицинского осмотра. В первую очередь — это сдача анализов крови на гормоны. Также эндокринолог может назначить УЗИ головного мозга, компьютерная или магнитно-резонансная томография.

Treatment of diseases of the pituitary gland is a long and often lifelong process. With reduced function, the patient is prescribed replacement therapy. This includes the hormones of the pituitary itself and other endocrine glands. When hyperfunction glands are prescribed drugs that inhibit its function.

Why do we need adrenal glands?

The adrenal glands are two small paired glands located on the tips of the kidneys, weighing about 5 grams. each They are slightly different in shape: the right gland has a pyramidal shape, the left gland is hemispherical. They have 2 layers inside - cortical and cerebral. Both layers produce different hormones, about 50 in total.

In addition, these layers have a different structure. Cortical - outer, wider (cortex, therefore, the name - "hypocorticism"). The inner layer or the brain (central) - takes only 20%. In this part, hormones are produced that affect blood pressure and regulate the contraction of the heart muscle - adrenaline, dopamine, norepinephrine.

Their deficiency of adrenal insufficiency does not. The cortical layer produces:

  • GCS: cortisol (stress hormone) and corticosterone,
  • minerallocorticoids: aldosterone (involved in water metabolism),
  • androgens - in both sexes: androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone,
  • female hormones (minimum amounts): estrogen and progesterone.

If the production of sex hormones in women is disturbed, they develop secondary male sexual characteristics. Also, the adrenal glands create hormones to participate in metabolic processes and immunity.

In addition, the adrenal glands regulate stressful situations, helping them to experience the production of a special hormone - cortisol. The work of the adrenal glands indirectly command the hypothalamus and pituitary gland. It happens like this: the hypothalamus produces corticoliberin, which reaches the pituitary and stimulates the production of ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone). It already directly affects the adrenal glands.

Causes of glandular diseases

There are a number of causes that disrupt the adrenal glands and lead to their diseases. The production of hormones can vary in two directions. These include inflammation in the body, damage to the hypothalamus and pituitary, tumors of the glands, impaired blood flow, vascular disease, congenital anomalies, and disorders of the thyroid gland.

For example, adrenal gland disease pheochromocytoma develops in thyroid tumors. The work of the adrenal cortex is slightly impaired by hypothyroidism, but then an impaired liver comes into play, slowing down the breakdown of hormones and slowing their output in the urine, which is why the amount of 17 in the urine - keto steroids (products of the breakdown of hormones) decreases. adrenal glands - SUN (adrenal fatigue syndrome).

Normal level of cortisol, in turn, is needed for normal functioning of the thyroid gland. With its lack of hypothyroidism will develop regardless of the level of T3, T4, TSH and rT3. Hypothyroidism increases the production of corticosteroid-binding globulin (transcortin), which binds cortisol and converts it to an inactive form and further reduces its quantity.

So there is a vicious circle - the connection of both glands is evident. In addition, with hypothyroidism, the liver does not work well and does not wash out cortisol at a normal speed, keeping it in itself. Therefore, in blood tests, cortisol can be increased at its real minimum in the body.

When diagnosing hypothyroidism, it is necessary to pass urine for free cortisol or its fourfold testing in saliva to analyze its production in the body. Also, in hypothyroidism, in order to assess the metabolic rate, it is important not only to determine thyroid hormones, but also to measure the oral temperature for 5 days to determine the metabolic rate. Hypothyroidism gives a temperature of less than 36.5. In hypothyroidism, there may be normal T3 and T4, but iron deficiency, B12, cortisol, reverse T3 excess, etc.

In other words, only on the basis of thyroxin and TSH, hypothyroidism is not diagnosed and no treatment is given. Cortisol deficiency can give the following symptoms: waking up after 4-5 hours after falling asleep, orthostatic hypotension, inability to transfer stress in comparison with the past.

In all such cases, it is necessary to treat both glands, as well as the liver, since it is in it that all hormone transformations occur. In addition, the liver produces detoxification of the thyroid hormone suppressors and toxins. Otherwise, there will be only a temporary improvement, but not a cure, i.e. treat smoke, ignore flames. Therefore, when hypothyroidism is often the thyroid gland is not fully restored and there is no weight loss and a normal quality of life in its other aspects, the treatment is one-sided. This must be taken into account by the attending physician.

What methods can help the thyroid gland to recover, except for its hormones? First you need to unload and improve liver function. It is in it that all hormone transformations occur.

In addition, the liver produces detoxification of the thyroid hormone suppressors and toxins. The liver is engaged in the production of a globulin-binding globulin that carries thyroid hormones through the bloodstream.

Little globulin - too many free hormones, a lot of globulin - few free hormones. What gives a lot of hormones in free swimming? Cell receptors do not respond to thyroid hormone signals, resembling insulin resistance and do not do their job. The golden mean can only be with a healthy liver. Liver for the thyroid gland - case No1.

Also, the thyroid gland is very dependent on the health of the adrenal glands - problem No2. Another connection of these glands under conditions of chronic stress: the stress hormone adrenaline enhances the excretion of PUFAs from the cell membranes into the bloodstream. They do not give free thyroid hormones to inhibit cell receptors.

Adrenal health depends on the normal level of sugar in the blood (in this, by the way, the thyroid gland also participates). To do this, food intake should be regular, there should be a decrease in stress. Nutrition must be correct: a decrease in refined simple carbohydrates, which prevents sugar from jumping up and down.

It is necessary to reduce the flour and caffeine. If this does not help, it also speaks of hypothyroidism. Such patients do not tolerate starchy vegetables and fruits due to a decrease in insulin. It is impossible not to recall the connection between the thyroid gland and the ovaries: with an increase in estrogen, hypothyroidism and Hashimoto disease almost always develop.

Estrogen suppresses the production of thyroid hormones. But in parallel with this, it increases the level of stress hormones (again, communication!) - and they also suppress the production of thyroxin. Estrogen dominance helps to “form” thyroid nodules and endometriosis, fibromyoma. Another link: obesity with hypothyroidism - increased estrogen - reduced thyroxine (vicious circle). By the way, the excess fat in men turns testosterone into estrogen, it is wrong, i.e. harmful.

Excess estrogen out of balance with progesterone. What is the result? Immunity spacing. And if the liver also fails, which cannot remove excess estrogen, everything grows like a snowball.

To prevent the reabsorption of estrogen in the intestines, some foreign researchers recommend eating 2 raw carrots daily. Hypothyroidism also leads to a decrease in leptin, which is responsible for normal weight.

Iron deficiency is another factor in hypothyroidism. Summing up, one can understand why the number of patients with hypothyroidism is increasing. Everything is interconnected - the farther into the forest, the thicker the partisans, as they say. Therefore, it is believed that if there are problems with the thyroid gland - this is adrenal communication and the adrenal glands should be treated.

How to quickly help the adrenal glands?

It is necessary to restore the adrenal glands gradually, without changing everything at once in one day:

  1. Night sleep no later than 23 hours.
  2. Reduce cereal and starchy foods in the diet, since it is heavy food for the adrenal glands.

The first task in hypothyroidism is nutrition. Sugar and caffeine - not your case. Reduce their use - the first step.

Step number 2 - enough protein. Protein is responsible for transporting the thyroid homo to tissues. Proteins should be both animal and vegetable (nuts, beans).

Step number 3 is a sufficient amount of fat, because fat and cholesterol are precursors of hormones. Useful fats include ghee, olive, flaxseed, avocado, fish, nuts, cheese, coconut milk.

Step # 4 - Vit.D3 deficiency (below 32 ng / ml), PUFA, iron, Se, Zn, Vit.A and B, iodine - they need to be replenished, but not with pills, but with products. Sources of iodine: spinach, eggs, sesame, mushrooms, beets, garlic, persimmon.

Step 5 - when thyroiditis Hashimoto excludes products with gluten, because the molecules of the thyroid tissue are almost identical with gluten (gluten). Therefore, the frequency of autoimmunization on the thyroid gland may increase.

Step number 6 - increase products with glutathione. It is a powerful antioxidant that strengthens the immune system and treats Hashimoto's disease by alleviating autoimmune outbreaks. There are products that contribute to the development of their own glutathione - it's broccoli, asparagus, garlic, eggs, spinach, avocado.

Step number 7 - regulation of intestinal microflora.

Step 8 - examination and treatment of adrenal pathologies, as the thyroid gland and they function in pairs.

Step number 9 - getting rid of stress by any means. Sources of radiation (even when passing X-rays, try to cover the neck area with a collar.

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These steps are not a treatment plan, but help and prevention, a mindset on the path to health.

The most common pathology of the adrenal glands

Addison's disease - develops with a lack of adrenal hormones. Its typical manifestations: one of the main manifestations - a change in the color of the skin and mucous membranes - hyperpigmentation. This is especially noticeable in places of friction about clothes, on the palmar lines, in the area of ​​sutures and scars, if any, on the genitals and around the anus. Hyperpigmentation occurs when the primacy of the process. If the adrenal glands suffer a second time - pigmentation does not occur.

This skin change is caused by the production of ACTH in response to a drop in the hormones of the cortex. During ACTH, the melan-stimulating hormone is intensely produced, causing darkening.

With improper treatment, there is an increase in pigment, and vice versa. In 5-25% of cases, instead of pigmentation, depigmentation (vitiligo) - “white addisonism” appears.

Fatigue and loss of muscle strength is another manifestation of the disease and 100% of patients. This is due to a decrease in glycogen, which was maintained by the GCS and which is now becoming scarce. Muscle mass is lost and the person loses weight. In 90% of patients reduced appetite. There are pains in the abdomen, nausea. Appears craving for salt. Mineralocorticoid deficiency leads to loss of sodium and water, dehydration and low blood pressure occur. Against this background, there may be headaches and dizziness. MC is violated in women, the potency in men. Half of the patients may have mental disorders.

Gland depletion

Adrenal exhaustion often develops in the face of stress. Symptoms:

  • decreased activity, pain in the joints, daytime sleepiness and poor sleep at night,
  • loss of hair and teeth
  • nervousness,
  • excessive tiredness
  • difficulty with the morning rise.

In practice, this is manifested in the morning desire to drink coffee, to eat candy after dinner.

  1. Oversensitive to the sun from the eyes and dependent on sunglasses. To strengthen the adrenal glands you need to stay on the street in the afternoon without glasses.
  2. The cheeks become sunken - they need to be treated not with collagen, but with a change in diet and full sleep.
  3. Fingers change - the tips become plump, they have vertical lines.
  4. Pale lips - they pale not from age. The elimination of gluten, sugar and caffeine will make your lips pink.
  5. Sparse hair on the legs and arms.
  6. The weakness of the muscles of the waist, pain in the knees.

Also among the symptoms:

  • petty annoyance
  • difficulty concentrating
  • reduced immunity
  • presence of duodenal ulcer or stomach,
  • constant feeling of fatigue, regardless of the amount of sleep.

Insufficiency of the adrenal cortex - develops against the background of diseases of the pituitary gland, infection. Symptoms:

  • loss of appetite and weight loss
  • nausea, vomiting and blemishes on the skin,
  • increase in diuresis,
  • hypoglycemia,
  • gastrointestinal problems.

Stress - adrenal glands - DTZ

DTZ or Basedow's disease is an autoimmune disease. It causes or worsens stress. This relationship was described as early as 1825. Parry. For example, very often during war, hyperthyroidism developed among those who escaped from concentration camps.

What happens during stress? A stressful event causes the body to "turn on" a survival mode. The level of various hormones is also changing. For example, the adrenal glands begin to produce hard cortisol. This is needed by the body to overcome the situation. After the crisis, all systems are normalized.

If stress lasts a long time, the adrenal glands are forced to rebuild and release cortisol all the time so that the body works normally. Gradually, they get tired and develops SUN - adrenal fatigue syndrome. But this leads to the development of hyperthyroidism. With the weakening of the adrenal glands, the body begins to break down.

To slow down this destruction, the thyroid gland will also slow down - slow down the metabolism. As a result, hypothyroidism appears. At the last stage of such fatigue they talk about such a pathology as adrenal insufficiency. The consequence of this is metabolic syndrome.

Consequences of SUN

Tired adrenal glands cannot control cortisol. This does not allow estrogen to be eliminated from the body. It increases the special thyroid globulin to which thyroid hormones are attached and this makes them inactive. The body cannot use them and their blood level drops. This explains the similarity of the symptoms of hypothyroidism and SUN.

Thyroid Hormones

Two types of hormones are formed in thyrocytes of the thyroid gland: triiodothyronine (T3) and tetraiodothyronine (T4, thyroxin). An important role for the formation of active substances is played by iodine and irreplaceable acid tyrosine. From thyrocyte hormones enter the colloidal substance of the follicles, where they accumulate and are released as needed. There is also a specific protein thyroglobulin, which belongs to the reserve substance for the synthesis of thyroid hormones. Normal levels of T3 and T4 in the blood are maintained by transport proteins, which do not allow the active substances to be leached out in the glomeruli.

The control of the thyroid gland exercise the hypothalamic-pituitary system. Low levels of hormones in the blood are monitored by the hypothalamus, which causes the activation of synthesis in the pituitary thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). This substance affects the receptors of the thyroid gland and prevents a decrease in its secretory function.

Thyroid hormones have the following effects on the body:

  • regulate energy reactions and processes of thermoregulation,
  • normalize the work of the sex glands,
  • have an anabolic effect (growth, development, bone formation),
  • contribute to the breakdown of fat
  • maintain the physiological level of proteins
  • form the development of the brain,
  • control the work of the digestive, cardiovascular, nervous system.

The thyroid gland does not have target cells like other endocrine organs. All body tissues without exception need its hormones. Thyroxin in cells is 90% converted to T3, which has the main biological effect on homeostasis.

Clinical manifestations of acquired hormone deficiency

A decrease in thyroid function causes a disruption in the functioning of all organs and systems; therefore, the pathological process can proceed in a polysymptomatic way. More often than not, the patient has pronounced manifestations of one or several systems, sometimes the disease proceeds with a scanty clinical picture. A characteristic feature of the pathology is the lack of a direct relationship between the level of thyroid hormone deficiency and the severity of the manifestations of the disease. Also, there are no specific symptoms of the disease, which could be accurately diagnosed.

Appearance

Low levels of hormones form a characteristic type of patients with a long course of the disease. Puffy face, constriction of the eyes due to periorbital edema, an increase in the nose and lips. Hair is sparse, hard, dull, prone to loss. Face amimichnoe, look indifferent, extinct. The skin is dry, yellowish, rough with characteristic peeling on the elbows.

Patients noted inhibited behavior, slowness, confusion. Due to the swelling of the tongue, speech is languid, unintelligible. The swelling of the vocal cords gives a low, rough voice, with prolonged conversation hoarseness appears. A characteristic feature is the imprint of teeth on the edges of the tongue. Swelling of the Eustachian tubes cause hearing loss up to complete deafness.

Heart and vessels

When metabolic processes are disturbed in the body, the level of low density cholesterol increases. This leads to atherosclerosis - the formation of plaques on the walls of arterial vessels. The defeat of the coronary arteries causes strokes, and in advanced cases, complete occlusion of the vessel and the development of myocardial infarction are formed. The defeat of the arteries of the legs leads to the syndrome of intermittent claudication, which is characterized by painful calf muscles during movement.

A decrease in hormones causes a slower heart rate, a drop in blood pressure.. Брадикардия может протекать тяжело с показателями пульса ниже 50 ударов в минуту. Появляется экстрасистолия, развивается увеличение сердца (кардиомегалия), формируется перикардит. При выслушивании тоны приглушены, при перкуссии границы миокарда расширены. Пациентов беспокоит одышка, слабость, боли за грудиной.

Nervous system

A lack of thyroid hormones often causes depressive states. In the early stages of the disease, this symptom may be the only manifestation of the pathology. In severe cases, emotional dullness, a decrease in intellectual abilities are formed, memory and information perception deteriorate. Often there are hallucinations, there is aggression and irritability. Such patients can cause harm to themselves and others.

There is a decrease in reflexes, sluggish motor activity, muscular weakness. There are pain and numbness of the limbs, a violation of all types of sensitivity, which is associated with compression of peripheral nerves along the line ("channel" syndrome). There is sleepiness during the day, insomnia at night, lethargy, apathy. As a result of damage to the peripheral innervation, visual and hearing acuity deteriorates.

BX

A slowdown in metabolic reactions and a decrease in energy production leads to an increase in body weight. This is facilitated by the accumulation of glycosaminoglycans in the connective tissue, which are highly hydrophilic, thereby attracting water. Weight gain occurs due to fluid retention in tissues, as well as slowing down fat burning in the face of a shortage of energy-generating enzymes.

The pathology of the process of thermoregulation leads to constant chilliness, cooling of the limbs, discomfort even at high ambient temperatures. In advanced cases of low hormonal activity, the thyroid gland develops hypothermia. The temperature of patients is usually below normal, its level slightly increases with infectious diseases and purulent processes in the body.

Digestive system

Lack of thyroid hormones causes weakness of the smooth muscle muscles. This leads to the development of atonic constipation and the formation of fecal stones in the intestinal lumen. Violation of the bile duct tone causes stagnation of bile, enlarged liver, the formation of stones inside the gallbladder.

Patients feel a feeling of intestinal overflow, bloating, heaviness and stabbing pain in the epigastrium. Often there is nausea, unpleasant taste in the mouth, vomiting. Reducing the absorption of iron in the intestine leads to the formation of severe forms of anemia and impaired blood formation.

Sexual sphere

Thyroid hormone levels are closely related to the work of the sex glands. Insufficient concentration of thyroxin in the blood causes a violation of ovarian function in women. This causes the pathology of the menstrual cycle, which can manifest as amenorrhea, and dysfunctional uterine bleeding. The possibility of conception is reduced, the process of carrying a fetus is impeded. The level of prolactin in the blood increases, which can cause the release of colostrum from the mammary glands.

Insufficient testicular activity in men leads to a decrease in fertile function, up to the development of persistent infertility. Libido decreases, impotence develops, impotence. In some cases, obesity is noted for the female type (fat deposition on the thighs, buttocks).

Read more about the symptoms of thyroid disease in women to read here.

Clinical manifestations of congenital hormone deficiency

With a lack of thyroid hormones associated with congenital abnormalities, the first symptoms develop 2-3 weeks after the birth of the child. Suspected illness can be on the following grounds:

  • giving birth after 40 weeks of pregnancy
  • birth weight more than 3500 grams,
  • jaundice for more than 3 weeks
  • late release of meconium,
  • long-term healing of the umbilical wound,
  • signs of immaturity of the newborn (on the Apgar scale more than 5 points),
  • rough low voice
  • swelling of the face, "dense pillows" in the supraclavicular pits,
  • cyanosis of the nasolabial triangle,
  • enlarged tongue, parted mouth.

At the age of 4 months, the child has the following symptoms of lowering hormones:

  • poor appetite
  • gagging when swallowing,
  • muscle flaccidity
  • chronic constipation, flatulence,
  • pallor, dry skin,
  • low weight gain
  • decrease in body temperature.

In a six-month-old child, such manifestations of hormone lowering are noted:

  • late fusion of fontanels,
  • breach of teething,
  • nose bridge deformation
  • wide eye sockets,
  • delayed development of reflexes, psychomotor development.

Important points are the timely diagnosis of the disease and the appointment of adequate replacement therapy, according to the severity of the condition of the newborn. Otherwise, a low level of thyroid hormones will lead to an irreparable delay of physical development and a violation of the mental sphere. This is manifested by the curvature of the limbs and spine, deformation of the facial bones, and slower growth. Observed mental retardation, weak intellectual abilities, impaired memory. In the absence of the necessary therapy cretinism develops.

At the first manifestations of insufficient thyroid function, it is necessary to conduct a diagnostic examination of the blood for the content of thyroid hormones. Early treatment will prevent the development of severe complications and improve the prognosis of the disease.

Home / Biology / Tests / Test on the topic "Humoral regulation. Human endocrine apparatus, its features." 8th grade.


1. The secret of the external secretion glands is directly highlighted:

1) in the body cavity,

2) blood vessels,

3) target organs.

2. To the endocrine glands include:

1) the pancreas,

3- The external secretion glands include:

1) gonads,

2) the thyroid gland,

3) sebaceous glands.

4. The hormones secreted by the pituitary gland do not directly affect:

1 ) on the pancreas,

2) the thyroid gland,

5. The active principle of the hormone thyroxine is:

6. Lack of thyroid hormones:

1) reduces the excitability of the nervous system,

2) increases the excitability of the nervous system,

3) practically does not affect the excitability of the nervous system.

7. The endocrine glands secrete a secret which contains:

8. With a lack of thyroid hormone the disease develops:

1) Bazedovu disease,

3) diabetes.

9) Excess growth hormone causes:

3) Bazedovu disease,

3) diabetes.

10. The conversion of glycogen to glucose in the liver is due to:

11. Diabetes mellitus is a disease that is associated with

1) the pancreas,

3) the thyroid gland.

12. The central role in maintaining hormonal balance in the body belongs to:

13. The hypothalamus actively influences the endocrine glands through:

2) the thyroid gland,

14. By their chemical nature, hormones are:

3) nucleic acids.

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Verified Answer

  • Ancaria
  • main brain

1. The secret of the external secretion glands is directly highlighted:

1) in the body cavity,

2. To the endocrine glands include:

3. The external secretion glands include:

3) sebaceous glands.

4. The hormones secreted by the pituitary gland do not directly affect:

1) on the pancreas,

5. The active principle of the hormone thyroxine is:

6. Lack of thyroid hormones:

1) reduces the excitability of the nervous system,

7. The endocrine glands secrete a secret which contains:

8. With a lack of thyroid hormone the disease develops:

1) Bazedovu disease,

9) Excess growth hormone causes:

10. The conversion of glycogen to glucose in the liver is due to:

11. Diabetes mellitus is a disease that is associated with

1) the pancreas,

12. The central role in maintaining hormonal balance in the body belongs to:

13. The hypothalamus actively influences the endocrine glands through:

14. By their chemical nature, hormones are:

Symptoms of thyroid hormone deficiency

Hypothyroidism is primary and secondary, depending on the cause of low blood levels of hormones.

The primary is associated with the pathology of the gland itself, and the secondary is associated with a malfunction of some other organ, for example, a disorder in the hypothalamic-pituitary system, which controls the synthesis of T3 and T4.

Also, hypothyroidism can be congenital and acquired, in the first case, the child is immediately born unhealthy, and in the second, the disease appears after birth.

Hypothyroidism has its own complex of symptoms:

  • weight gain for no apparent reason
  • increased fatigue, shortness of breath with no heavy loads,
  • in women, the menstrual cycle is extended, the discharge becomes either very scarce or abundant in excess of the norm,
  • men have periodic problems with potency,
  • swelling of the eyes
  • chills appear even if it is warm
  • constipation
  • hard to swallow, throat dry and sore,
  • skin becomes dry, brittle nails and hair appear,
  • memory and concentration problems
  • hoarseness, lowering of a timbre of a voice,
  • headaches .

If at least half of these symptoms occur, then this is most likely hypothyroidism.

In this case, you need to turn to an endocrinologist, and conduct an examination of the thyroid gland.

What causes hypothyroidism in children?

Congenital thyroid hormone deficiency threatens cretinism for a child.

The first symptoms can already be seen in two to three weeks, and newborns usually pass tests earlier.

Pathology is suspected if:

  • the gestation period is 40 weeks
  • the baby was born big
  • poorly heals the scar from the trimmed umbilical cord,
  • cyanosis of the nose, lips,
  • noticeable hypertrophied tongue and incomplete closing of the mouth,
  • appeared mucous edema of the maxillofacial region,
  • revealed a high degree of immaturity on the Apgar scale.

In this case, timely and complete treatment of the child is necessary.

Even if everything is done successfully, for the baby there is a risk of lagging physical development.

What can end the disease for adults?

Speaking of acquired hypothyroidism, it is impossible not to say about hypothyroid coma.

This phenomenon causes a pronounced shortage of hormones, especially if doctors are late in diagnosis, or therapy was inadequate.

In the precomatose state, the following occurs:

  • the patient loses consciousness
  • there is intermittent breathing, dyspnea, interrupted rhythm,
  • body temperature goes down
  • pulse almost not detectable,
  • palpitations weakened
  • swelling of face and limbs
  • disturbed urination.

The treatment in this case is a large set of activities carried out in the intensive care or reanimation ward.

The course of the disease is complicated by many factors, such as the development of a heart attack or heart failure.

This is a very serious condition, which in 80% of cases ends in death.

What happens to the metabolism?

Metabolism failure is an inevitable consequence of the lack of vital thyroid hormones.

Violations in protein metabolism are due to the slowing down of the synthesis and decomposition of hyaluronic and chondroitin sulfuric acids and mucin.

Pathology is expressed in the mucous swelling of organs and tissues and is complicated by hydrothorax.

Lipid metabolism, with a deficiency of hormones T3 and T4, is characterized by poor utilization and decomposition of fats.

As a result, cholesterol and triglyceride levels rise in the blood.

Carbohydrate metabolism also suffers, because glucose absorption in the gastrointestinal tract is impaired.

This is due to a violation of the synthesis of calcitonin, which is responsible for the inhibition of osteoclasts, the cells that absorb bone.

Due to serious metabolic disorders, heart failure and hypertrophy, degenerative processes of the myocardium develop.

Directly due to lipid metabolism disorders, the risk of vascular atherosclerosis, primarily coronary ones, increases.

In the vessels also degenerative changes in the muscular and elastic layers are observed.

Therefore, people who have suffered prolonged hypothyroidism may experience heart problems.

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