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Features of the introduction
The initiator of the revision of outdated standards was the World Health Organization. Recommendations that the artificialists should be given early to feed, that already at 4 months it is necessary to feed the kids porridge with butter, that fruit purees should be given even earlier, recognized not to meet the real needs of the child's body.
How did such recommendations arise, and why did pediatrics submit to them for so long? The fact is that in the twentieth century there was a massive transition of the population of civilized countries to artificial mixtures. However, the technology that would allow producing more or less decent food did not exist.
The first mixture consisted of dry cow's milk, which the children's body can not absorb up to eight months due to the lack of appropriate enzymes. Also, the feeding of children was carried out with the use of porridge finely ground (and the smallest, as is known, semolina), kefir. Such a diet could not meet the needs of the child's body, so doctors advised to enrich it with other products.
That is why the beginning of feeding with artificial feeding was for a period of three to four months, and as early as 5 months it was recommended to include cereals, fruits, vegetables, cottage cheese in the diet ... Also for this reason, a contradictory stereotype developed about the digestive system of the artificial organism for “alien products”.
The development of the direction of artificial nutrition has served to change the modern ideas about the timing of the introduction of complementary foods. In the past fifteen years, adapted artificial mixtures have been developed, which, although they could not come close to the composition of breast milk, have become its perfectly acceptable counterpart.
The essence of the adapted mixture is the splitting of the protein component in its composition, which allows the child's body to absorb it fully. Mixtures also enrich the whole range of essential substances: trace elements, fatty acids, vitamins. The composition of quality products clearly corresponds to the basic needs of the child's body. This eliminates the need for early introduction of complementary foods.
WHO experts recommend the introduction of complementary foods when artificial feeding in the middle of the first year of life. The guideline for the mother should be six months, until which the baby, who received the adapted mixture, does not need other products.
Terms can be shifted in one direction or another. New foods in the diet from about five and a half months are needed if the baby is very active, mobile, and he needs more high-calorie food to compensate for energy costs.
In the question of how and when to feed the artificial animal, follow the following rules.
- The mixture is important for up to a year. In the first year of life, the child has a need for a whole range of nutrients. Adapted mixtures are made with their account. Therefore, the composition of the product for a newborn is significantly different from the composition of the mixture for a child older than six months. At the same time, it is impossible to say for sure that by receiving instead of a mixture of cereal porridge and mashed potatoes, the child will be provided with everything necessary for proper development. And the point is not only that it is not easy to balance the diet, especially when the toddler refuses a number of products. And the fact that nutrients from food are assimilated differently. For example, adapted mixtures contain a huge amount of iron, to a much greater extent than the baby’s body needs. Manufacturers saturate them with a “reserve”, because the iron from the mixture is not completely absorbed, but in an amount of about 20–25%. For comparison, from red meat or liver, which is considered the main source of iron in the diet, this trace element is absorbed only in the amount of 5-10%.
- Products do not crowd out the mixture. Of course, with an increase in the amount of new food in the child's diet, the volume of the mixture will decrease. But just to decrease, and not to be eliminated completely. This essential for the baby battery should be maintained in each feeding.
- Five meals. Artificial babies usually follow a feeding regime for half a year. If you observed the free mode of feedings or fed up to this time more often and to a lesser extent, now you can easily switch to five meals a day. This will contribute to an increase in calorie feedings.
- New product - once a week. The organism of the crumbs-artificials is not at all adapted to “alien” food for them. Moreover, its digestive tract is even more vulnerable than that of an infant. Therefore, with the introduction of new power components can not be in a hurry. One week - one product - the golden rule of healthy complementary foods. In this case, it is important for the mother to observe the reaction of the body: if a rash appears, a digestive upset has arisen, this product should be removed from the diet.
Therefore, do not force the child to eat the product, even if you have spent a lot of time preparing it. Do not insist, do not distract, imperceptibly laying a spoon in his mouth. A more correct approach would be to schooling food under the normal conditions of your family: at the common table, when the crumb watches his loved ones eat and tries to repeat after them. This approach forms the right attitude towards food, in which there is no violence from adults.
Meet the new food
The scheme of introduction of complementary foods during artificial feeding may include products from different groups. The most popular options for the first feeding:
- milk - kefir,
- cereal - porridge,
- vegetable - puree of hypoallergenic vegetables.
Pediatricians pay attention to the fact that the scheme should be chosen taking into account the state of health, the developmental characteristics of the baby. But in each case, the dairy components can not be the products of choice, as they contain milk protein in undigested form. Up to eight months, it is not absorbed by the child's body, since the digestive system does not produce the necessary enzyme. Therefore, to introduce fermented milk ingredients in the diet should be later.
The table - the introduction of complementary foods when artificial feeding babies from six months
Age to start feeding
Modern adapted mixtures are ideal for the baby, but they cannot fully satisfy the needs of a growing, developing organism, as breast milk does. Its composition changes as the baby develops, it is different for each nursing woman. It is for this reason that when fed artificially, complementary foods are introduced a little earlier.
In fact, even the opinions of pediatricians differ. According to the data of the modern World Health Organization, early feeding from 3 months is dangerous for a child’s health day. The necessary enzymes for digesting solid foods begin to be produced in 4 months. Therefore, familiarity with the new food is postponed until the age of 4.5-5 months.
Attention! Solid food is not something hard, dry, chewing. This term refers to all baby products, except for breast milk and adapted mixture. The transition to normal food (porridges, mashed potatoes, even kefir) is the introduction of solid food.
Signs of child's readiness
Despite the deadlines, each child needs an individual approach. One baby already at 4 months will be ready to eat solid food, the second at 5-6 may not understand what they want from him. This does not mean developmental delays, there is no negative key here, there is no need to concentrate on this moment. It is better to carefully monitor the baby, so as not to miss the right time to start feeding with artificial feeding.
- The child is sitting with the help of parents. At 5 months, you can put a pillow so that the baby is in a reclining state. In a horizontal position to give food is impossible. It is not necessary to grind and dilute complementary foods to give it from the bottle, it is wrong. Food should be offered only with a spoon.
- There was a food interest. The kid reaches for his parents' food, tries to grab, bring to his mouth. He actively responds to cutlery, are drooling.
- The pushing out reflex disappeared, which protects the newborn child from falling into foreign objects in the first months of life.
- The daily amount of the adapted mixture reached 800-1000 ml.
- The weight of the child has increased 2 times since birth. If the baby was born prematurely, then 2.5 times.
When breastfeeding is an indirect sign of the child's readiness, the eruption of the first teeth. But for children on artificial nutrition, it is irrelevant, since for most babies this happens closer to 6 months.
General principles for the introduction of new products
The first feeding with artificial feeding should not coincide with other changes in the child's life: teething, diseases, vaccinations. Otherwise, familiarity with the new product can result in a lot of trouble. It is necessary to choose the most comfortable time.
- Prikorm is given in the morning before one of the main meals.
- Regardless of the type of product, the first portion should not exceed 0.5 tsp. If during the day no negative reactions have appeared, then the amount can be increased by 2 times.
- Each type of product must be given at least 7-10 days. Only after that they begin to get acquainted with another meal.
- You can not simultaneously mix several unfamiliar products. But you can add a new ingredient in a dish that has already come to the child, he uses it with pleasure.
- Up to 8 months, all products should have a homogeneous consistency, since the swallowing and chewing reflexes are not yet sufficiently developed.
It is important to pay special attention to clean dishes. It is advisable to use a separate saucepan, get a children's plate, a spoon. If the dish is prepared by yourself, choose high-quality vegetables, fruits, meat. After cooking, you need to cool the food. The optimum temperature is 36-37 ° C, that is, it corresponds to body temperature.
Tip! To determine the temperature of the dish is not necessary to purchase a food thermometer. It is enough to drop a small amount of puree on the inner side of the wrist, it will immediately become clear.
Possible problems and solutions
There is a lot of information about artificial feeding, the transition to adult food, but it does not always help to avoid problems that arise not only among young, but also among experienced parents. Some things cannot be influenced. The main thing - do not panic. If there is a nuisance, you need to pull yourself together, calm down, help the child.
- The child refuses the product. Not always a new taste and unusual texture are taken with delight. After 1-2 days supplements offered again. Sometimes it comes to 10 attempts.
- The child pushes the spoon with his tongue. Most likely, he is not yet ready for the first lure. It is worth waiting a few days or weeks until the reflex disappears.
- Allergy. It may manifest itself in different ways: rash, itching, reddening of the cheeks, buttocks, groin areas, abdominal pain. It is necessary to stop the introduction of complementary foods, use an antihistamine drug, consult a doctor.
- Upset stool. This problem may indicate the unavailability of the digestive system, as well as evidence of intolerance to the product. The first supplements should be postponed for another 1-2 weeks, then look at the situation and the well-being of the child.
You can not increase servings of complementary foods, even if the child does not mind eating more. After the norm, the baby is fed with the mixture. If you immediately offer a lot of new food, the body will not be able to process the product, the risk of developing allergies will increase several times.
How to introduce the main products
All foods for feeding can be divided into the main and additional. The first group includes mashed potatoes, which will completely replace food intake, that is, be served in full portions. Additional products include eggs, oil, spices, herbs, bakery and rusks. They are offered to the child to improve the taste of the dish, the variety of the menu, to enrich the dish with valuable substances, but only after the introduction of the main food.
Product Introduction Chart
Product Name, g
Baby age in months
For the first complementary foods, hypoallergenic, light types of vegetables with low starch content are selected: zucchini, cauliflower, broccoli, pumpkin. Later carrots are added, soaked potatoes. All products are perfectly combined together in vegetable puree. But to offer a duet or a trio is necessary only after an individual acquaintance with each species.
From 5 months feeding apples, pears, prunes are introduced. Next, add apricots, peaches, bananas, kiwi. By 7-8 months, you can add berries with a low degree of allergenicity. Children like fruit purees because they have a pleasant taste and sweetness. They will solve the problem with the chair. For example, a pear helps to cope with diarrhea, and prunes relieve constipation.
For complementary foods used lean meat: beef, rabbit, turkey, horse meat. It is necessary to introduce chicken with caution, as it refers to allergenic products. Meat can be combined with vegetables familiar to the child. Do not simultaneously introduce egg yolk, so as not to complicate the work of the stomach.
For complementary foods, low-fat varieties of river and sea fish are used: pollock, hake, cod, perch. Closer to the year, you can add to the diet seafood. Puree is prepared from them, which is combined with familiar vegetables. Any fish has a high degree of allergenicity; when a problem is detected, the product is delayed for up to a year, sometimes up to 2 years.
Cottage cheese, kefir
Fermented milk products will help to normalize and improve the bowels, but it is important to consider the shelf life. Curd easy to poison. There is also a chance to buy a low-quality product. For this reason, you need to choose a manufacturer of baby food. Many parents prefer to cook cottage cheese on their own.
Starting lure should be with cereals that do not contain gluten: buckwheat, rice, corn. Later you can add other cereals. Porridge for the child cooked in milk or diluted with a suitable mixture. When overweight, the introduction of cereals is delayed for 1-2 months.
Purchased and homemade food: the pros and cons
You can argue about the purchase and homemade food to infinity. In fact, everything is very simple: both ready-made and self-cooked baby food have a place in the child’s diet. It all depends on the time of year, the availability of quality products, the taste of the baby. For example, it is not necessary to deprive a child of healthy cauliflower or rabbit meat if it is not possible to cook them, but it is easy to buy mashed potatoes in the store. But if the first lure came at the end of the summer and autumn, when high-quality vegetables are available, it is best to cook the dishes yourself.
Pluses of purchased baby food:
- Convenience. Especially at the very beginning of the transition from artificial feeding to solid food. At this time, the baby eats only a few spoons, sometimes refuses, and time is spent on cooking and food.
- Diversity. Regardless of the season, you can buy absolutely any baby food, including rare meats, non-seasonal vegetables.
- Consistency. Mashed potatoes prepared with age-related features. For the first complementary foods from 4 months this is a gentle mass, gradually manufacturers increase the density, add lumps, small grains.
- Quality. Not so long ago, natural products were valued more. Now the situation has changed. A lot of attention is paid to the production of baby food, strict control is maintained.
- Taste. In the finished food it is the same or similar to each other. In home dishes it varies, depending on the initial raw materials, the number of spices, and the cooking time.
By cons include the cost. The price of one jar is often equal to a whole kilogram of vegetables or 0.3-0.5 kg of meat, also a big difference between cereals and ready-made cereals. In order to save, you can gradually go to a normal meal. The only thing that does not need to be changed is children's dairy products. Find high-quality cottage cheese or kefir mass production in the store is really difficult, children's brands benefit from it.
General principles of making baby puree
Так как при искусственном вскармливании ребенок недополучает жизненно важных веществ, нужно сделать его рацион максимально разнообразным. В домашних условиях можно приготовить любой первый прикорм, если есть качественные продукты. Mashed potatoes prepared from vegetables, meat, fish, fruits. For grinding, use a blender or strainer.
General principles of mashed potatoes:
- The product should be washed, cleaned, it is desirable to soak the meat and fish. Cut into pieces, put in the pan.
- Pour water so that it barely covers the product, put on the stove.
- After boiling the broth from the fish, the meat is drained, replaced with pure boiling water. Vegetables are cooked in the same water without replacement.
- As soon as the product is cooked, it will become soft, drain the excess liquid in a bowl, chop the pieces.
- Children on artificial nutrition in vegetable puree add adapted mixture, milk. Fruit, meat dishes are diluted with the previously removed decoction, bringing to the desired consistency.
It is advisable to eat homemade food immediately after cooking. You can put part of the dish in a sterile container, close, store in the refrigerator for up to 24 hours.
Tip! For storage of mashed potatoes it is convenient to use glass jars from baby food. They are perfectly washed, sterilized, tightly closed, have a small volume.
General principles for the selection of ready-made food for feeding
On baby food packages not only the characteristics of the product, but also the age range are indicated. For prikorma need to choose the appropriate mashed potatoes and porridge. It is important to study the composition, which should be from one main product. Adding salt, oil is allowed, milk is added to the finished cereal.
What to look for:
- Shelf life. Canned meat, fish should be as fresh as possible, as are dairy products.
- Date of production. You should not choose applesauce, released in March or January. It is better to give preference to summer, autumn products, when the fruit is fresh, full of vitamins.
- The integrity of the packaging. If the lid on the jar is swollen, the box is torn, the dry mixture for porridge wakes up, this product for feeding and for baby food in general can not be used.
As for the cost, the quality of the product is not always associated with it. The price is formed from many factors: transportation, packaging, storage, brand awareness, advertising. Often, baby food from local manufacturers in no way inferior to expensive counterparts.