Inflammatory diseases of the kidneys are quite common. It is necessary to treat them under the guidance of a doctor, since the choice of drugs depends on the cause of the disease. If the inflammation is caused by a bacterial infection, antibiotics should be used. For kidney disease, not all types of antibacterial drugs are indicated. Many of them are toxic to diseased organs, as they are eliminated through them. In order not to cause complications, you can not use antibiotics yourself without a prescription.
Inflammatory diseases of the kidneys
The urinary system performs in the body very important functions. It is through it that slags and toxins are removed, and the metabolism is also regulated. The kidneys are constantly under stress. Disruption of their work and inflammatory diseases affect the condition of the whole organism.
Inflammation of the kidneys is called nephritis. This group of pathologies includes pyelonephritis, nephrosis and renal tuberculosis. These diseases are manifested by severe pain in the lumbar region and lower abdomen, impaired urination, weakness, high fever. In addition, there is also glomeru nephritis. This disease is associated with autoimmune disorders, but is also accompanied by a serious inflammatory process.
If the bladder is affected by inflammation, cystitis develops. The symptoms of this disease are also unpleasant: severe pain and stinginess during urination, impaired urine outflow. The cause of all these inflammatory diseases most often becomes infection. It gets through the urethra with poor hygiene or through the blood. That is why antibiotics for such diseases are the main method of treatment.
Antibiotic treatment rules
Antibacterial drugs can have a bactericidal or bacteriostatic effect. Bactericidal antibiotics cause the death of microorganisms that are sensitive to their effects. When using bacteriostatic drugs is the cessation of growth and reproduction of bacteria. Antibiotics usually act selectively on certain types of microorganisms, so they should be used after testing. But there are also broad-spectrum drugs, they are used less frequently, since they are more toxic to the kidneys.
Such medications are taken in the form of tablets, suspensions or injections. For infections of mild to moderate severity, you can drink pills. Children and weakened patients are shown suspensions, since they are easier to dose. In the most severe cases, antibacterial drugs are best administered by injection. So they quickly penetrate into the blood and spread throughout the body.
Side Effects of Antibiotics
These drugs destroy bacteria. It favorably affects a condition of the patient. But the characteristics of their chemical composition lead to the fact that they often cause side effects. First of all, it is dysbacteriosis. Antibiotics do not only affect pathogens. They can destroy and beneficial bacteria that live in the intestines. Such a violation of microflora leads to abdominal pain, heaviness, flatulence, intestinal upset.
The second most common complication after taking antibiotics is damage to the gastric mucosa. This is manifested by nausea, slowing digestion, heartburn. Women against the background of such treatment often develop thrush. In addition, allergic reactions are common side effects. It may be a rash, hives, itchy skin, watery eyes, runny nose. Especially strong allergic reaction occurs when injecting drugs.
Wrong choice of antibiotics, exceeding or decreasing the recommended dosage, early cessation of treatment, or frequent unauthorized use of them before can lead to the development of resistance in bacteria. As a result, chronic inflammation can develop, which is very difficult to cure.
How to use antibiotics for kidney pathologies
The main goal of such treatment should be the destruction of the infection. Therefore, when choosing a dosage, it is necessary to ensure that the concentration necessary for the death of bacteria is achieved in the kidney tissues. Sometimes at the beginning of the treatment of kidney disease, antibiotics are prescribed in a loading dose, then it decreases. In any case, the dosage is selected strictly individually.
Typically, the duration of treatment is 7-10 days. But this is if the bacteria are sensitive to this drug. Therefore, first prescribed for diseases of the kidneys and urinary tract broad-spectrum antibiotics. And take urine tests to determine the causative agent of infection. If after a couple of days there is no improvement, the drug is canceled and a specific one acting on these bacteria is prescribed. Sometimes also requires the use of multiple drugs at the same time.
It is necessary to drink antibiotics only as directed by a doctor. If negative reactions occur, you must immediately inform him of this in order to change the drug in time. It is also important to additionally take probiotics in order to restore the disturbed intestinal microflora.
Antibiotic names for kidney disease
The list of antibacterial drugs is quite long. In accordance with the chemical composition of these drugs, several groups are distinguished. In addition, there are several generations of antibiotics. They may be effective and toxic. Not always the new generation of drugs will be more effective, in some pathologies often used are already tested, time-tested drugs.
Antibiotics for kidney and urinary tract diseases should be prescribed by a doctor. After all, not all of them are effective against the causative agents of such diseases; in addition, many of them can damage the kidneys. Means are usually used from several groups, and of them not all drugs are shown. The most commonly used:
Independently it is impossible to decide which antibiotic is better for kidney disease. Only a doctor can determine this on the basis of tests and the patient's condition.
Judging by the reviews of doctors and patients, these are the most effective antibiotics for kidney disease. The names of such drugs for many people are unfamiliar, as with other pathologies they are prescribed less frequently. But against bacteria that cause inflammation of the kidneys and urinary tract, they are most effective. Already on the second day of treatment, most patients feel relief. Cephalosporins have low toxicity, the majority of patients are well tolerated, but they cannot be used for chronic renal failure. These are effective antibiotics for kidney disease, the patient feels relief after a couple of days of treatment.
The most commonly used drugs are Cefalexin, Ceforal, Ciprolet, Claforan, Tamycin, Cefoperazone. Judging by the reviews, they are effective against a large number of microorganisms, prevent the development of purulent complications and quickly reduce inflammation.
These are the most famous and low-toxic antibiotics. For kidney disease in women, they are used during pregnancy and breastfeeding. But they are not very effective in the presence of complications, so their use is advisable only in mild cases of the disease. They are especially effective against enterococci and Escherichia coli.
There are several broad-spectrum antibacterial drugs from the aminopenicillin group that are most commonly used for kidney inflammation.
These antibiotics for kidney and bladder diseases are used in case of kidney failure or other chronic pathologies. They are less toxic than other drugs, they can even be used during pregnancy, but they also have less effectiveness. Judging by the reviews of doctors, aminoglycosides are most active against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, therefore, purulent complications are well prevented. Improper use of such drugs can lead to damage to the kidneys and organs of hearing.
Aminoglycosides are used most often in the conditions of a medical institution in the form of injections. The most common are drugs "Amikacin", "Gentamicin", "Netilmicin". Sometimes in difficult cases they are combined with antibiotics from the penicillin group.
Carbapenems or beta-lactam agents
These antibiotics for kidney disease is rarely prescribed, only in the case of severe disease and the presence of a large number of complications. After all, a contraindication to their reception is renal failure, so they try to prescribe them when other drugs have been ineffective, as well as in chronic inflammation with many complications. This group includes little-known drugs: "Meropenem", "Carbonem", "Imipinem". Judging by the reviews, they are effective in cases where bacteria produce resistance to penicillins or cephalosporins.
These drugs are also toxic, have a large number of contraindications and side effects. They are also used only in the most serious cases when there is a threat to the life of the patient due to complications. Fluoroquinolones are bactericidal drugs that destroy infection in the urinary system.
In the chronic form of pathologies of the kidneys, when a serious aggravation occurs, Levofloxacin or Sparfloxacin is administered.
If the inflammation occurs in a severe form, there are complications and a high risk of death, stronger medicines are prescribed: Ciprofloxacin, Digran, Moxifloxacin, Ofloxacin. These funds are also used in cases where other antibiotics have not worked.
If the patient does not self-medicate, and see a doctor in time, most often they can quickly stop the infection and inflammation. Experts know better what antibiotics to take for kidney disease.
In some cases, the use of other groups of drugs is justified. For example, nitrofurans are sometimes used. These tools have long been known and often used for cystitis or pyelonephritis before. These are "Furadonin", "Furazolidone", "Furamag".
Sometimes in the presence of intolerance to penicillins and cephalosporins in a state of mild or moderate severity, macrolide preparations are prescribed. These are Vilprafen, Sumamed, Erythromycin, Clarithromycin, Azithromycin and others. Judging by the reviews, they are most often used for glomerus nephritis, since they mainly have a bacteriostatic effect.
Antibiotics can be used only on prescription. They are selected individually, but there are several that are used most often. In accordance with the frequency of their use, you can make a rating of the most effective antibiotics:
They combine high efficiency, good portability and low price. These are broad-spectrum drugs, so they help in most cases.
People begin to suspect that their kidneys are not all right after the appearance of pulling pain in the lumbar region. If this symptom did not serve as a signal for a visit to a doctor, then urination disorders soon develop. Human urine changes color and odor, it detects blood clots, pus and flocculent sediment.
When the cause of the inflammatory process is the penetration into the structural elements of the kidneys of viruses and bacteria, intoxication of tissues and organs of the urinary system develops. You can not stifle pain medications and postpone a visit to the doctor. At this time, a cancer can form in the kidneys.
Diagnosis of the pathologies of the cups, pelvis and tubules does not take much time, but gives a clear picture of the inflammatory process. Combined therapy is aimed at:
- elimination of the cause of the disease,
- reducing the severity of the clinical picture,
- restoration of the functional activity of all life activity systems.
Before visiting the doctor, you should not take antibiotics or antimicrobials, as this may significantly slow down the detection of the disease, distort the indicators of biochemical studies. When the visit to the nephrologist is scheduled for the next day, and the person suffers from pulling pain in the lower abdomen or lower back, you can take a 0.5-1 pill of No-shpy (Drotaverina hydrochloride).
The drug will eliminate the spasm of smooth muscles of the bladder, improve the condition. Acute severe pain is the main symptom of renal colic, which should be treated in a hospital setting.
The main groups of drugs
Kidney disease occurs for various reasons. The inflammatory process in paired organs is often preceded by pathology of the bladder and urethra, hormonal disorders and even neurogenic disorders. Complex therapy is primarily aimed at eliminating the provoking factor, therefore, the nephrologist often works in tandem with an endocrinologist, a urologist, a neuropathologist. But there are certain groups of pharmacological drugs that always improve the work of both kidneys.
No-shpa eliminates kidney disease cramps
Kidney disease often occur on the background of stagnant urine. This accelerates the spread of the inflammatory process, damage to cells and tissues. A person has aching pain in the lower abdomen, in the sides and lower back. And during the discharge of calculi, the kidneys hurt so much that they can provoke a loss of consciousness.
To eliminate spasms and improve the patient's condition, the doctor prescribes antispasmodic drugs for him:
- neurotropic (platifillin, atropine sulfate). Medications affect the transmission of nerve impulses to the nerves, which stimulate the smooth muscle muscles.
- myotropic (Drotaverine hydrochloride, papaverine). The drugs act directly on the smooth muscle cells, changing biochemical processes.
Under the influence of antispasmodics, the lumen of the urinary canals increases, which normalizes the discharge of urine, eliminates its stagnation. Painkillers for the treatment of renal pathologies are usually used in the form of tablets, but in the event of acute pain, parenteral administration of solutions is practiced.
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
In the vast majority of cases, diseases of the kidneys and adrenal glands are accompanied by the formation of inflammatory foci. NSAIDs not only reduce the severity of the pathological process, but also eliminate the associated painful manifestations. These drugs are available in the form of solutions for injection, capsules, tablets, powders for the preparation of suspensions.
For the treatment of kidney disease used drugs that are included in this list:
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs irritate the mucous membrane of the gastrointestinal tract. Therefore, patients with gastritis or duodenitis is better to use NSAIDs in the form of suppositories for rectal administration.
Medicines block the production of inflammatory mediators - serotonin and prostaglandins. Indomethacin eliminates pain and inflammation, has a diuretic effect. This allows you to use it in the treatment of diseases occurring against the background of increased renal and (or) blood pressure. It is not recommended to exceed the duration of the course of treatment of NSAIDs, as over time ulceration of the mucous membrane of the organs of the digestive system can occur.
Canephron reduces the severity of the inflammatory process in renal disease
In the treatment and prevention of pathologies of the kidneys and bladder almost always used drugs with ingredients of plant origin. As a rule, these are medicinal herbs with diuretic, bactericidal and antiseptic effects. The composition of the tablets or capsules also include vitamins, trace elements and other biologically active substances necessary for the body.
Uroseptics are used in the treatment of kidney disease. For the prevention of recurrence of inflammation should be used only in accordance with the attached instructions. You can not use the pills without diagnostics, as under their influence, stones in the kidneys begin to move. Uroseptiki do not belong to the first-aid drugs - they are appointed by the nephrologist as an adjuvant.
What drugs have a natural composition:
- Canephron. The preparation includes lovage, centaury, rosemary. Used in the treatment of pathologies of the urinary organs of infectious and non-infectious etiology,
- Cyston. A unique selection of medicinal plants allows the use of herbal tablets in the treatment of kidney diseases that occur against the background of the formation of extensive edema and increased crystallization of mineral salts,
- Monurel. Биологически активная добавка содержит клюквенный экстракт и аскорбиновую кислоту.The drug has bactericidal and antiseptic, used in the treatment of kidney disease to restore the bladder,
- Fitolysin. Pasty medicine contains herbal extracts and essential oils with anti-inflammatory and diuretic action. It can be used as a prophylactic drug in patients with urolithiasis and renal salt diathesis.
- Urolesan. Herbal medicine comes in the form of droplets with a specific odor and capsules. Well eliminates painful cramps in the lumbar region, inflammation and urination disorders.
Studies (including the study of macropreparation) proved the effectiveness of herbal preparations in the treatment of kidney diseases at the initial stage. The relevance of medicinal herbs in the elimination of inflammatory processes that caused impaired urination was confirmed: difficult discharge, leakage and incontinence of urine.
Antibacterial and antimicrobial drugs
Before prescribing drugs, a laboratory examination of a patient's biological sample is required to determine the type of pathogenic pathogen and its sensitivity to antibiotics. In the treatment of kidney disease, broad-spectrum drugs are used. Tablet names:
- cephalosporin series (2-4 generation),
- Amoxiclav, Amoxicillin,
The course of treatment with antibacterial agents ranges from 7 to 14 days. Its duration depends on the stage of the inflammatory process and the type of infectious agent. Drugs destroy not only pathogens of renal pathologies, but also beneficial bacteria in the human intestine, which can cause a sharp decline in immunity, the development of iron deficiency anemia. For the prevention of dysbiosis the patient is recommended to take probiotics and prebiotics.
Broad-spectrum antibiotic destroys pathogens in the kidneys
Medicines that dissolve kidney stones
Patients with urolithiasis often have acute pain when passing stone through the ureters. To avoid surgery, nephrologists prescribe medications that dissolve kidney stones. Such drugs are used only after conducting instrumental studies to assess the state of paired organs, determine the size and chemical composition of calculus.
Such preparations help to destroy soft and medium-sized stones:
- Panangin (Asparkam). Long-term use of tablets contributes to the dissolution of crystals and stones, which are compounds of urinary or oxalic acid,
- Blemarin. The drug is made in the form of tablets for solution preparation. Course use leads to the destruction of oxalates and urates, removing them from the body with each emptying of the bladder,
- Allopurinol. The drug is able to dissolve urates, interfere with the process of crystallization of uric acid salts. The maximum therapeutic effect is achieved when the patient observes a balanced multi-component diet.
Upon detection of solid and large kidney stones, the patient is shown only the procedure of crushing with the help of ultrasound or a laser. The use of drugs to dissolve calculi or sand extraction without diagnosis can lead to rupture of the ureters.
Almost all kidney diseases occur on the background of urination disorders. Water-salt imbalance provokes swelling, increased renal and blood pressure. Stagnation of urine in the ureters and bladder leads to the active reproduction of pathogenic microorganisms. The best pharmacological diuretics are used to normalize urination in the treatment of renal pathologies.
Do not take diuretics without a doctor's prescription.
Some cheap drugs (Furosemide) not only remove excess fluid from the body, but also trace elements that are necessary for cells and tissues - potassium, sodium, magnesium, calcium. This leads to a decrease in the functional activity of all systems of vital activity, including urinary.
For edema of renal origin and to eliminate problems with bladder emptying, nephrologists recommend drinking the following diuretics:
Long-term use of these drugs can provoke a violation of metabolism, an increase in the content of uric acid in the body and its salts. For the prevention of water-salt imbalance simultaneously with diuretics, patients take potassium-sparing drugs (Asparkam or its analogue Panangin).
It is impossible to treat kidney disease on its own - the inflammatory process will rapidly progress, provoking serious consequences. Some drugs can be taken only in the hospital, under the supervision of a nephrologist. Pain in the lumbar region and impaired urination are a signal to seek medical help.
Indications for use
Antibiotics are always prescribed. to combat inflammatory processes with glomerulonephritis and pyelonephritis, if these diseases develop against the background of the activity of pathogenic bacteria.
Before prescribing this group of drugs, it is necessary to make a bacterial urine culture, which allows identify a specific pathogen and find the right medicine.
How to pass the analysis on the tank sowing, read our article.
Also the indications for prescribing antibiotics are the following pathologies and factors:
- possible development of sepsis,
- risk of acute illness becoming chronic,
- severe intoxication
- any chronic damage to the kidney tissue
- relapses of chronic illnesses associated with various complications,
- reduced immunity
- diseases in the advanced form at which inflammations develop.
Antibiotics are always prescribed to patients undergoing hemodialysis.
This is due to the fact that when administered during hemodialysis the catheter always exists risk of bacterial infection. Antibiotics are also used to prevent bacterial infections after kidney surgeries and after transplantation of these organs.
Effect of antibiotics on the kidneys
Antibiotics suppress pathogenic microflora, which develops in the tissues of the kidneys and provokes the occurrence of inflammatory processes.
(The picture is clickable, click to enlarge)
The problem is that such remedies always eliminate not only pathogens, but also good bacteriawhich are necessary for the functioning of the kidneys. This can lead to complications (including kidney failure).
Therefore, it is necessary not only to select antibiotics in accordance with the disease, but also subsequently undergo a course of intake of probiotics, which restore the balance of beneficial bacteria.
But even with such a restorative treatment, against the background of the course of antibiotics, the patient may have painful sensations in the kidneys for some time after taking them. This is normal if the pain is tolerable, and this effect usually goes away on its own within a few days.
AT depending on the causative agent and the causes of the inflammatory process may be assigned to antibiotics of different groups, which have their own characteristics, indications and differ in side effects and effectiveness:
- Aminopenicillins. They are appointed in most cases, since they have a wide spectrum of action and are the least toxic. Can be used for treatment during pregnancy. The most common drugs in this group are Penicillin and Amoxicillin.
- Macrolides (Wilprafen or Sumamed). Only some representatives of pathogenic microflora show sensitivity to such agents; therefore, these drugs are prescribed only in some cases, but at the same time they show high efficiency in relation to microorganisms sensitive to them.
- Cephalosporins. Appointed with purulent inflammatory processes (Cefalexin, Klaforan, Tamycin, Zinnat).
- Nitrofurans. In most cases, such antibiotics are well tolerated by patients, and therefore are prescribed if there are contraindications to other groups. They are active against many known pathogens. Among these drugs, Furamag and Furadonin are best known.
- Aminoglycosides. Potent antibiotics that are prescribed for severe disease and in advanced cases. With a weakened immunity, such agents are contraindicated, as they can cause intoxication of the body. Such drugs include Amikacin and Gentamacin.
- Fluoroquinolones (Levofloxacin, Nolitsin). Also relevant when running pathologies with complications, but with an overdose may be a manifestation of strong side effects.
Only a specialist can accurately determine the appropriate antibiotic after studying the history and determining the severity and cause of the disease.
Name and description of drugs
For inflammations that spread in the kidney’s tissues, the following antibiotic drugs:
The drug is a broad-spectrum, which is available in pill form. In pregnancy, hypersensitivity to the remedy and before the age of 18, the remedy can be used, but with caution and only under the supervision of the attending physician.
Take the antibiotic is necessary in the amount of 0.4 or 0.8 grams, depending on the severity of symptoms twice a day. The drug has many side effects: cramps and tremor of limbs, dizziness, abdominal pain, flatulence, nausea, glomerulonephritis, angioedema, pruritus, tachycardia, bronchospasm and a number of other disorders affecting various systems of the body.
A potent drug, the treatment of which is first carried out with the use of the full dosage, but later with a decrease in the symptoms of inflammation, the dosage is reduced. Children are not prescribed an antibiotic, the dosage for adults is no more than two tablets per day.
Side effects of the drug include flatulence, nausea and vomiting, abdominal pain, loss of appetite. The tool is contraindicated in case of hypersensitivity to it and in epilepsy.
The drug is sold in the form of tablets or solutions for injection. The dosage varies in the range of 0.2-0.7 grams once a day. When hypersensitivity to the drug may develop such adverse reactions as nausea and vomiting, loss of appetite, decrease in the level of leukocytes in the blood, drowsiness, dizziness, and general weakness.
Antibiotic cephalosporin group, which has a low toxicity and can be used for kidney inflammation in children and pregnant women. The dosage is 1-2 grams of the drug up to two times a day, the total daily dose should not exceed 4 grams.
Side effects of ceftriaxone in case of individual intolerance can be pruritus, urticaria, serum sickness, anaphylactic shock, dysfunctions of the digestive system, anemia, nasal bleeding.
Also applies to cephalosporins, but is available in the form for intramuscular and intravenous administration. You can use the drug up to two times a day, 1-2 grams each time. For this remedy, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, painful sensations at injection sites, and kidney problems are typical side effects.
It has a small number of contraindications compared with other means, but it is ineffective if the disease becomes severe with complications. Available in the form of a solution for injections and tablets. The permissible daily dose of the drug - 2 grams (can be used once or twice a day).
Side effects are dermatological rash and pruritus, dysbiosis, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, the development of stomatitis, leukopenia, nephritis and nephropathy.
Low-toxic antibiotic, which, however, is prescribed with caution in renal failure and during pregnancy and breastfeeding. With an overdose possible pain in the stomach, atrial fibrillation, the manifestation of allergic reactions.
For the treatment of children, it is permissible to use the drug in a dosage of up to 40 milligrams per kilogram of baby weight per day, dividing the dose into 2-4 parts. For adults, these tablets are recommended in an amount of 200 to 400 milligrams per day by dividing the dose so that the drug is taken every six hours. The total duration of the course of treatment is no more than 10 days.
The means of the first generation of the group of fluoroquinolones. Mostly prescribed for hospital infections, provoking inflammatory processes in the kidneys. With hypersensitivity, pregnancy and breastfeeding the drug is contraindicated.
Depending on the severity of the disease, a day is prescribed from 0.5 to 1.5 grams of the drug, which is taken twice a day at an interval of 12 hours. Side effects - tremor, headaches, fatigue and dizziness.
Antibiotics are drugs that are peculiar to a large number of side effects. For this reason, the independent choice of such agents by patients is completely excluded: only such a doctor can prescribe such a remedy and determine the dosage.
How to restore the kidneys after treatment?
When using kidney antibiotics, not only pathogenic microflora, but also “friendly” bacteria always die, and such drugs can cause painful sensations in the kidneys.
Such pain can be reduced or eliminated by symptomatic treatment with painkillers prescribed by a doctor. It is possible to accelerate the recovery of the kidneys after antibiotic therapy in the following ways:
- To strengthen the immunity and restore beneficial microflora, it is necessary to consume more fruits and vegetables and for a while abandon heavy meat dishes.
- In the first week after the end of the course of treatment, probiotics can be drunk, although in most cases it is necessary for older and older people: people under 30 years old need to use kefir, yogurt and cottage cheese to restore the microflora in the body.
- In the early days it is important to fully relax and observe the daily regimen, as well as avoid excessive physical exertion.
- When immunity is weak, it is desirable to undergo a course of fortification.
In most cases, negative reactions from the body and complications after antibiotic treatment are not observed.
If such consequences are present - it is easy to get rid of them, observing preventive recommendations, but in some situations additional treatment may be needed, which the nephrologist or the therapist will help determine.
What antibacterial drugs taken for pyelonephritis, learn from the video:
Basic principles of treating kidney inflammation
The treatment of the acute period is carried out in a urological or nephrological hospital and includes: bed rest, diet, antibacterial and symptomatic therapy.
Outpatient treatment is possible only in case of a mild exacerbation of chronic pyelonephritis. Homeuronephritis is always treated in the hospital.
Antibiotics for inflammation of the kidneys and bladder (ascending infection) are prescribed after urine culture for sterility and determination of the sensitivity of the pathogen.
In the absence of positive dynamics, the antibacterial drug is replaced within two days.
If it is impossible to conduct analyzes, preference is given to broad-spectrum antibiotics.
Treatment of pyelonephritis is carried out in three stages:
- Basic antibiotic therapy,
- Use of uroseptics,
- Anti-relapse, preventive measures.
- Systemic use of antibiotics with high activity for streptococcal infection.
- Pathogenetic agents.
For empirical (initial) therapy, it is preferable to use protected penicillins and the third generation of cephalosporins.
Preferably parenteral (intravenous and intramuscular) administration of drugs.
Protected penicillins are calculated at a dosage of 40-60 mg / kg for adults and 20-45 mg / kg in children, the daily dose is divided into 2-3 doses.
- Amoxicillin / clavulanate (Augmentin, Amoxiclav),
- Amoxicillin / sulbactam (Trifamox).
Calculation of the dosage is carried out, focusing on the content of amoxicillin.
Inhibitor penicillins are highly effective against Escherichia coli (Escherichia), Klebsiella, Protein infection, Entero, Staphylo and Streptococcus.
Penicillin is generally well tolerated by patients due to low toxicity, exceptions are individual sensitivity and intolerance to the components of the drug.
Side effects include allergic reactions and dyspeptic disorders.
In nephritic syndrome, preference is given to benzylpenicillin (1 million IU up to six times a day, a course of 10 days).
When detecting a Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a combination of anti-pusicidal penicillins Pipracil, Sekuropen is prescribed with aminoglycosides of the second or third generation (Gentamicin, Amikacin).
Сочетание с фторхинолонами (Ципрофлоксацин) применяют при наличии противопоказаний к применению аминогликозидов (нарушение функции почек, дегидратация, поражение вестибулярного аппарата, аллергические реакции).
The treatment is carried out strictly under the control of biochemical blood parameters, due to the risk of hypernatremia and hypokalemia.
Antibiotics of choice for treating kidneys in pregnant women
- Protected penicillins,
- Macrolides (erythromycin, josamycin).
These drugs do not have a teratogenic effect, low toxicity and are effective against bacteria that cause inflammation of the kidneys, which allows them to be used during pregnancy.
Macrolides have a low activity against pathogens, so they are rarely used in mild forms of recurrence of chronic inflammation of the kidneys in combination with other drugs.
During breastfeeding, drugs that do not accumulate in breast milk are used: Amoxicillin, Cefoperazone, Cefobid, and nitrofuran derivatives.
During lactation, oxyquinolines, derivatives of nalidixic acid, chloramphenicol, tetracyclines, aminoglycosides, sulfonamides and trimethoprim are prohibited.
Use of antibiotics for urolithiasis in men and women
Urolithiasis is considered the main cause of obstructive pyelonephritis.
On the background of antispasmodic, analgesic, detoxification therapy connect antibacterial drugs:
- Aminoglycosides (Gentamicin, Tobramycin, Amikacin),
- 3rd generation cephalosporins,
- Carbopenems (Tienam),
- Fluoroquinolones (Ofloxacin, Ciprofloxacin).
During eradication (destruction) of the pathogen in patients with renal insufficiency, antibiotics should be selected according to the degree of activity to the pathogenic flora and the absence of a nephrotoxic effect.
Erythromycin preparations are used in combination with cephalosporins and protected penicillins.
Do not use:
- First-generation cephalosporins,
- Beta lactams
The use of uroseptics
Therapy is prescribed for up to one month.
- Nitrofuran derivatives (Furacilin, Furazolidone, Furagin, Furamag).
They have a wide spectrum of activity, are effective against antibiotic-resistant strains. Highly active against staphylo and streptococcal infections, enterococci, enterobacteria, trichomonads, Klebsiella.
Contraindicated in pregnancy. Permitted to use during lactation.
They have a high incidence of side effects (dyspeptic disorders, bronchospasm, pulmonary edema, allergic reactions, damage to the central nervous system, have a toxic effect on blood cells and liver). Not compatible with alcohol intake.
- Non-fluorinated quinolones (nalidixic acid or nevigrammon, negram, palin).
Active against Escherichia, Klebsiella, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus.
Not compatible with nitrofurans. Contraindicated in renal failure.
Side effects include: cytopenic reactions, bile stasis, hemolytic anemia, disorders of the gastrointestinal tract.
In the acute process do not apply, due to the low concentration in the urine.
The main reasons for frequent relapses are inadequate antibiotic therapy (choice of the drug without activity to the pathogen, low dosages, addiction to the antibiotic with prolonged or repeated administration, insufficient treatment duration and lack of anti-relapse therapy). Evaluation of the dynamics of treatment is possible only under the constant control of microbiological examination of urine.
Effective use of herbal medicine with a change of applied herbs every two weeks, in order to avoid addiction.
Prescribe drugs that have antispasmodic, anti-inflammatory and diuretic effects (Cystone, Canephron, Schillington).
Contraindications to herbal therapy are individual intolerance, allergic reactions, hyperoxaluria, dysplasia, congenital anomalies of the kidneys and urinary tract.
It is important to understand that it is impossible to cure kidney inflammation with herbs and homeopathy. The only cure for kidney inflammation is antibiotics. Self-treatment can lead to severe purulent complications and end with renal failure.
In the acute period of pyelonephritis prescribed bed rest and diet 7-A, with a gradual expansion of the diet. Drinking regimen up to 2 liters per day.
They carry out detoxification with Ringer's solutions, glucose. Disaggregant (pentoxifylline) is prescribed to reduce secondary nephrosclerosis. Their use is contraindicated in patients with hematuria.
In case of severe pain syndrome, antispasmodics are prescribed (Drotaverin, Platyphyllin) and analgesics (Nimesulide, Ketorolac, Diclofenac).
In the fortifying purposes used vitamins B, ascorbic acid.
In remission, spa treatment, physiotherapy exercises, vitamin therapy, and physiotherapeutic procedures are recommended.
When glomerulonephritis severely limit the use of salt.
Drinking mode up to 1 liter per day. Bed rest up to two weeks.
- Diuretics (saluretiki, osmodiuretiki),
- Antihypertensive drugs
The choice of pathogenetic agents depends on the form of glomerulonephritis.
For hematuric, it is preferable to use anticoagulants and antiplatelet agents (heparin, chimes), in order to reduce microthrombus formation and further damage to the glomerular membrane.
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory and quinoline agents are also effective.
When nephrotic form prescribed glucocorticosteroids (dexamethasone, prednisone), cytostatics, chimes, heparin.
Immunosuppressants are added to the mixed treatment.
Nonspecific, inflammatory process in the renal parenchyma with involvement of the renal tubules and lesion of the renal pelvis-renal system.
The main pathogens are: E. coli, entero and staphylococcus, chlamydia, microplasma infection.
The onset of the disease is acute: high fever, severe back pain, vomiting, abdominal pain, dysuric disorders. There is a link between inflammation of the kidneys and the recently transferred intestinal infection, tonsillitis, an attack of urolithiasis.
The inflammatory process can be:
- primary (no obstruction of the upper urinary tract),
- secondary (obstructive).
In a timely manner, the uncured acute pyelonephritis becomes a chronic disease with progressive damage to the renal vessels and glomeruli.
This is a group of diseases with an immune-inflammatory mechanism of glomerular damage, further involvement in the process of interstitial tissue. Possible outcome in nephrosclerosis with chronic renal failure.
The main cause of the disease is Streptococcus group A.
According to its course, the inflammatory process can be:
- acute (usually a favorable outcome with recovery, the process may be chronized),
- subacute (malignant course with acute renal failure, often fatal),
- chronic (constantly progressive course, with the development of chronic renal failure, due to severe, irreversible damage to the glomerular basement membrane, circulating immune complexes).
The outcome of glomerulonephritis are: membranous, interstitial, focal, diffuse-proliferative nephritis.
Clinically distinguished acute glomerulonephritis with:
- Nephritic syndrome (unexpressed edema, hematuria, urine becomes the color of meat slop, increased blood pressure),
- Nephrotic syndrome (swelling of the face, ankles, lower legs, ascites is possible in severe cases),
- Isolated urinary syndrome (mild edema and hematuria),
- Nephrotic with hematuria and hypertension.
Kidney damage is always bilateral, pain is not pronounced.
Infectious disease doctor Chernenko A. L.
How are effective medicines selected?
Cystitis or nephritis is accompanied by inflammation in the kidney area and causes pain in the lumbar region. The disease occurs due to bacteria and germs that enter our kidneys through the blood. The infection is caused by Escherichia coli or Streptococcus. Moreover, jade can cause terrible complications, so do not delay the trip to the doctor, and begin treatment and taking the medicine on time.
Treatment of inflammation is based on the use of medicines in combination with traditional medicine, as well as procedures that are aimed at strengthening the immune system. In pyelonephritis, doctors adhere to the main principles: diagnosis of the disease, its elimination, prevention of relapse, elimination of symptoms, constant monitoring of the patient.
The treatment begins with the intake of antibiotics. Antibiotics for kidney disease are very effective because they effectively eliminate the infection. The duration of treatment is from 5 to 12 days. Pick up antiseptics for jade can only doctor-urologist after a thorough diagnosis. For this purpose, a series of tests is carried out to determine the causative agent of an infection: a virus, a fungus or a bacterium. Also determined by the sensitivity of the stimuli to the drug. The severity of the disease plays an important role in the appointment of treatment. For example, a mild degree can be treated with antibiotics in pills, and severe - requires therapy with injections (sometimes intravenous fluids). Knowing the name of the causative agent, the complexity of the disease and the sensitivity to drugs, the doctor will prescribe the most appropriate drug that will provide productive treatment.
What antibiotics are most often prescribed by doctors?
The most commonly prescribed antibiotics are aminopenicilins, cephalosporins, and fluoroquinolones. Aminoglycosides and macroliths are less commonly prescribed. Each of these groups is used under certain conditions of the disease. The most commonly prescribed urological antibiotics are in the following groups:
- Aminopenicillin group. It is accepted to carry the following prescribed medications - "Amoxillicin" and "Penicillin." They guarantee effective treatment when Escherichia coli and enterococcus are the causative agent of infection. A safe group that can be prescribed even during pregnancy.
- Cephalosporin group. If the disease is accompanied by purulent inflammation, then with the inflammation of the kidneys prescribed "Claforan", "Zinnat", "Tsiprolet", "Ceforal", "Tamycin", "Cefalexin". Taking these pills helps to improve the patient's well-being on at least the 3rd day of treatment. Especially worth mentioning "Cephalexin". The treating substance of this drug 7-ACC in the short term prevents the transition of the inflammatory process into a complication.
- Fluoroquinolone group. These are "Levofloxacin", "Moxifloxacin", "Nolitsin". Assign with complications and chronic forms. Have a number of contraindications.
Other antibiotic groups
- Aminoglycoside group. Appointed at the advanced stage of the disease ("Netilmicin", "Gentamatsin", "Amikatsin"). These tablets have a toxic effect on the body, you can not take them for a long time.
- Group nitrofurans. Quite a long time and successfully used for treatment. Bright representatives - "Furadonin", "Furamag".
- Group of macrolides. Preparations of this category "Sumamed" and "Vilprafen" are effective against certain bacteria. Allowed the appointment of adolescents from 14 years.
Separately, it is worth mentioning uroseptics - these drugs, like antibiotics, affect the urinary tract and have an antiseptic effect. Very rarely, doctors prescribe injections for inflammation of the kidneys. They can be fast acting because they are quickly absorbed, unlike tablets, or in the case when tablets alone are not enough. And do not choose antibiotics yourself, before you go to the pharmacy, consult your urologist.
Amoxicillin is one of the popular antibiotics.
So, among these groups of drugs, the most famous antibiotics are Amoxicillin, Ampicillin, Amoxiclav, Norfloxacin, Ofloxacin. This group of drugs has been used for a long time and successfully copes with the task. Among the injectable antibiotics should be selected "Cefatoksim", "Cefazolin."
Remember, the dosage is adjusted individually for each patient, depending on the severity of the disease and the infection that caused the inflammation. In the course of antibiotics, the doctor will also write out probiotics that will help the body to “recover” after active treatment, since antibiotics tend to spoil the intestinal flora.
What drugs to take for treatment during pregnancy?
It is important to prevent the occurrence of inflammation during pregnancy. Doctors consider a dangerous period to be from 22 to 40 weeks. You need to eat right, it is desirable to limit the intake of large amounts of salt and fluids, get enough sleep, walk a lot, dress warmly. These simple tricks will prevent complications. Otherwise, you will have to resort to the help of doctors. According to statistics from medical research, cystitis is found in 10% of pregnant women, up to 2% of pregnant women suffer from pyelonephritis and have a small percentage of diseases of the urinary tract.
Treatment can not be ignored in any way, as well as engage in self-treatment. The consequences can be dangerous, even preterm labor. Therefore, the treatment of women put in a hospital where they are under the supervision of doctors. It is strictly forbidden to take drugs during this period, therefore, before moving on to drug treatment, nephrologists recommend safer methods. Firstly - a diet (without salty and spicy foods), secondly - drink enough water. Doctors may prescribe herbal medicines. Antibacterial drugs in the treatment of inflammation of the kidneys are prescribed only when other types of treatment do not help. In this case, injections are prescribed already familiar to us "Ceftriaxone" and "Ceazolin."
Causes of inflammation
Kidney inflammation can be at different ages. At risk are:
- Small children,
- women 18-30 years old
- men after 50 years (due to the propensity to develop prostate adenoma).
The main cause of inflammation is the ingestion of pathogenic microorganisms into the kidneys from other organs, through the blood, lymph. Most often it is streptococci that come from foci of infection in the respiratory organs (with tonsillitis, pharyngitis).
- urolithiasis disease,
- heart diseases,
- infections of the genitourinary system
- operations on the pelvic organs,
- weakened immunity.
Find out how to use Palin for cystitis and other urological diseases.
Read how to make cranberry juice and how to use it for kidney ailments at this address.
Signs and symptoms of the disease
Depending on the form of inflammation - acute or chronic, its symptoms may vary.
Acute inflammation of the kidneys is characterized by a sudden onset and severe symptoms:
- temperature up to 40 o C,
- excessive sweating
- severe pain in the lumbar region,
- painful urination
- nausea and vomiting.
Impurities of pus can be found in the urine due to a complication in the form of the formation of renal abscesses. Expressed turbidity of urine and hematuria. If inflammation is bilateral, signs of renal failure may appear.
Chronic inflammation becomes a consequence of acute and acute. Its symptoms are less pronounced:
- pale skin
- frequent urination,
- muscle pain,
- poor appetite.
Before prescribing antibiotics to fight inflammation, the doctor performs a number of diagnostic tests:
Be sure to find out the type of microorganism that caused the disease and its sensitivity to antibiotics. To do this, conduct bacteriological analysis of urine.
As a rule, treatment begins with aminopenicilins. These include amoxicillin and penicillin. They are effective against Escherichia coli and Enterococcus. A significant disadvantage is that they do not act against the main causative agents of pyelonephritis. Penicillins are allowed to use during pregnancy and lactation.
Antibiotics second stage
The doctor prescribes some antibiotics only for severe forms of inflammation, they can only be used in the inpatient setting. There are several groups of such drugs.
The doctor selects the dosage of each antibiotic depending on the patient's tolerance, general condition, severity of clinical manifestations.
Admission aminoglycosides may be accompanied by side effects:
- hearing impairment
- reversible renal failure.
They are not prescribed for renal failure, damage to the auditory nerve, uremia, the elderly and pregnant women.
Additionally, you can apply:
- 3rd and 4th generation cephalosporins (Cefpirim, Ceftriaxone),
- carbamazepines (Imipenem, meropenem).
View a selection of effective methods of treating pain during urination in women.
A list and characterization of pills for inflammation of the bladder can be seen in this article.
Go to http://vseopochkah.com/mochevoj/mocheispuskanie/rezi-u-muzhchin.html and learn about the probable causes and methods of treatment of pain at the end of urination in men.
General rules of application
Антибиотики — это препараты, которые обладают избирательным действием в отношении определенных бактерий – возбудителей воспаления. Применять их можно несколькими способами – в виде таблеток, капсул, суспензий, инъекций.
Oral administration is very convenient if the therapeutic effect of the drug is not lost under the influence of gastrointestinal enzymes. Injections are administered with complicated forms of inflammation of the kidneys, as well as if there are problems with the digestive system. This method of taking antibiotics allows to achieve in a short time the maximum concentration of the active substance in the body, bypassing the gastrointestinal tract.
Principles of antibiotic treatment:
- the dosage must be selected so that its optimum concentration in the kidneys is reached,
- sometimes at the beginning of treatment a loading dose of an antibiotic is applied, its concentration is gradually reduced,
- the minimum course of taking the drug should be at least 7-10 days,
- antibacterial drug is selected based on the results of the baccosev urine,
- if the causative agent of inflammation is unknown and it is impossible to wait for the results of bakposev due to deterioration of the patient’s well-being, use broad-spectrum antibiotics
- in the absence of improvement of the clinical picture on the 3rd day of treatment, the dosage of drugs is adjusted or changed to another, stronger one,
- severe cases of inflammation may require a combination of several antibiotics.
Unfortunately, taking antibiotics is fraught with not only the death of pathogenic bacteria, but also the side effects caused by the drugs:
- resistance of the pathogenic microflora to the antibiotic with its incorrect use,
- allergic reaction (before taking the drug you need to make allergy tests).
Video. Specialist of the Moscow Doctor Clinic on the rules for the use of antibiotics in inflammation of the kidneys: