Mushrooms are a specific product. Besides the fact that it is tasty, nutritious, and for many is considered a delicacy, it is in its power not only to cause poisoning, but also to be fatal. The point here is not even that he was poisonous, you can even be poisoned, being in complete confidence that the bast-basket is an edible crop.
Symptoms - how does mushroom poisoning appear, and after what time?
The first signs of mushroom poisoning after eating appear in 1.5-2 hours. In some cases, the time of onset of symptoms is postponed, and they appear in a day or two. Symptoms are identical to the manifestations of a normal eating disorder:
- Abdominal cramps.
- Vomiting and nausea.
- High temperature (38 degrees).
- Disturbance of blood circulation in the limbs.
- Weak pulse.
- Inflammation of the stomach.
If poisoning caused poisonous specimens to be eaten (pale toadstools, red mushroom, false mushroom and satanic), the symptoms are more serious, in the form of:
- delusions, hallucinations,
- mental disorders
- severe profuse diarrhea,
- excessive sweating
- the absence of urine in the bladder,
- constriction of the pupils,
- myocardial dysfunction,
- impaired respiratory function, asphyxia,
- pulmonary edema,
The reasons - why is this happening?
Mushrooms are a serious source of trouble. The causes of the symptoms can be very diverse.
Even as a professional mushroom picker, the guru of “quiet hunting”, no one can give a 100% guarantee of safety from product consumption.
Causes of intoxication, as a consequence of the use of mushrooms:
- If a poisonous specimen is eaten, the poisoning is caused by the action of toxins. At what each poison chooses its own organ "target" for destruction. Depending on the impaired system and organ, the symptoms are different and require different treatment. The severity of the course and the prognosis of poisonous mushrooms poisoning also depends on the poison and its power of action on the body.
- Incorrectly cooked mushrooms can also cause intoxication. Habitual edible and conditionally edible, subject to improper processing create favorable conditions for the functioning of bacteria. Dedicated toxins are the cause of a dangerous disease - botulism.
- The cause of poisoning may be the use of substandard specimens: old, affected by worms, collected in gassed places, near the road, factories and railway. They accumulate heavy metals, the excess of which causes disorders of body functions.
- Storage in raw or cooked form in non-sterilized containers or galvanized, glazed clay, can lead to poisoning of the body due to the possible saturation of the product with lead, zinc.
- There are cases when a person with all the desire can not afford to eat mushrooms, due to individual intolerance or diseases of the gastrointestinal tract.
- Some edible samples when combined with alcohol can cause intoxication, as the toxins of fungi dissolve well in vodka.
There is a specially designed instruction for first aid in case of mushroom poisoning. It should be like a reference book for every lover of delicious dishes with this product in the form of the main ingredient. By adhering to clear prescriptions, it is possible to alleviate the condition of the victim before the arrival of the ambulance brigade, and to increase the chances of a happy outcome:
- Assisting with mushroom poisoning begins with an attempt to determine which specimen led to the patient’s dismal state. May need to analyze vomit. Having determined the type, in the future the doctor will be able to prescribe a more effective method of treatment.
- Call an ambulance and continue to provide first possible assistance. It is necessary to ensure that the victim drank the maximum possible amount of water, but not less than 6 glasses. To induce vomiting. Continue until the body is completely cleansed until the patient begins to vomit with water without food impurities.
- The next step is to take a laxative, but the best effect can be achieved by enema, since the action of laxatives takes time, which is not in excess in case of poisoning.
- Activated carbon (black, white), smecta, enterosgel will help to bind and remove toxic compounds from the body.
- To avoid dehydration, the patient should be drunk. You can offer warm tea or water without gas.
- If the patient is unconscious, it is necessary to lay him on a flat hard floor, turn his head on his side to prevent the danger of choking with vomiting and sinking of the tongue.
- Prior to the arrival of physicians, constant monitoring of blood pressure, respiration, chest movement, and heartbeat is necessary.
- Provide fresh air.
- If there is confidence that it is poisoning, a warm heating pad is placed on the legs and on the stomach, if there are doubts, it is impossible to put heat on the stomach. In case of an erroneous diagnosis, a warm heater can seriously aggravate the situation. Heat contributes to the evaporation of gelwell acid, it can help save the victim. But if in doubt, you can use a warm blanket.
Rendered on an emergency basis, after the manifestation of the first symptom, help in mushroom poisoning can save a person’s life and reduce the destructive effects of poisons on the body.
Is treatment at home possible?
Any poisoning, including those caused by fungi, requires the intervention of physicians. Home treatment should be limited to the provision of first aid. This is an important stage. Correctly coordinated actions can greatly alleviate the fate of the patient.
Doctors focus on the fact that treatment at home with mushroom poisoning is strictly prohibited.
Only the professionalism of doctors and timely intervention can save a person in case of poisoning. Self-medication can be fatal.
The therapy, which is allowed for use in the home, is aimed at restoring the functions of the body, after removing the patient from a life-threatening condition. At this stage, in order not to overload the liver and digestive organs, it is important to follow a diet after mushroom poisoning.
Is it possible to poison with pickled mushrooms?
There is an opinion that the cause of mushroom poisoning is the lack of experience of mushroom pickers or the distress of the area to collect the seasonal crop. It is important not to forget about the danger that may entail a violation of the technological process of the workpiece. If a copy of the poisonous does not get into the bank, the poisoning can be triggered by improper handling.
According to technology, the harvested crop is salted 40 days, and only upon completion is it usable. If you do not withstand the recommended time, you can get quite painful symptoms and cause poisoning with pickled mushrooms.
Serious danger may lie in wait for the lover of salted and pickled mushrooms, if botulism sticks hit the soil from them. In comfortable conditions, they are actively developing, and once in a hermetically twisted jar without oxygen, they produce a strong toxin.
Food poisoning pickled mushrooms as a result of consumption, develops as a result, after ingestion of microorganisms and their intensive activity. Streptococci, clostridia and staphylococcus, anaerobic bacteria multiply under favorable conditions:
- rotting products
- failure to comply with proper heat treatment,
- failure to sterilize containers and covers
- non-observance of hygiene rules during conservation (according to accepted standards),
- violation of storage conditions
- violation of the integrity of the bank,
- violation of the sealing cover,
- expired products (after 12 months of storage at home).
Is it possible to poison dried mushrooms?
Mushrooms are useful, and, despite their availability in supermarket chains at any time of the year, people use the mushroom season to prepare 100% natural, fragrant and tasty product, which allows it to be consumed in winter.
Mushrooms are heavy for the stomach. They are poorly absorbed and often come out naturally in a non-processed form, and only true mushroom pickers-hunters know that the cap is better absorbed by the body due to the relatively small amount of fiber.
The form of the workpiece in the form of drying, one of the first ways to preserve products. It is considered less harmful, but requires compliance with certain rules and taking into account some nuances. The use of dry billets can also be a cause of food disorders and poisoning.
The fungicine, which is part of the structure of dry mushrooms, increases the load on the liver; this is the reason to refuse daily use of culinary delights with the dry ingredient taken as a basis. According to the recommendations of dietitians, it is necessary to limit the consumption of the product to two times during the week. Children in any form they do not include in the diet until 7 years of age.
The type of workpiece does not have a decisive value, if you choose with the aim, to prevent poisoning. A poisonous specimen susceptible to drying is just as dangerous as a freshly picked one.
Considering that the fungus is a spongy plant capable of absorbing toxins, it is important to make every effort to avoid intoxication caused by external factors.
How to prevent mushroom poisoning?
Adhering to some simple recommendations, you can prevent mushroom poisoning:
- Do not use galvanized and aluminum containers for storage.
- Recycle crop immediately after harvest.
- Pickling the crop to engage after pre-cooking (at least half an hour).
- Salt should be sufficient.
- Store salting no more than six months at +2 degrees.
- Do not collect plants from roads, in industrial areas, wormy and old.
- Do not combine alcohol with mushrooms.
- Bombing cans - a reason to throw the product in the trash.
Treatment for mushroom poisoning
The main methods of treatment for mushroom poisoning include:
- If the cause of poisoning is a fly agaric, the doctor will give an injection of atropine. This is a good antidote (repeat every half hour). To restore breathing and relieve spasm of the bronchi, isardine, aminophylline is prescribed. Caffeine is used to support the nervous system.
- Put droppers (polyglukin, saline infusil, sodium chloride).
- Noradrenaline or mezaton with hypotension.
- Hydrocortisone will help maintain liver function.
- At the discretion of the attending physician may assign antibiotics.
Before you make your choice in favor of consuming delicacy treats, it is important to understand that medicine is sometimes impotent before mushroom poisonings. If you are not sure about the quality of the product and its safety, you should not turn the meal into a game of Russian Roulette.
How does mushroom poisoning happen?
Biologists described over 3,000 species of various fungi. Of these, only 400 species are edible, all others represent a serious danger to health. Several species are constantly poisonous, and all the others become poisonous when they are used raw or improper cooking technology, and therefore they are called conditionally edible.
The most severe poisoning can cause pale, white and spring toadstools. If one quarter of their cap is accidentally eaten, severe poisoning occurs, which can lead to the death of an adult. Toadstools are dangerous in any form, since the poison amanitin contained in them does not lose its toxicity either during drying or when exposed to high temperature.
Very dangerous for humans and muscarin, which is contained in amanita and whitish govorushke.
In addition to the above, the following types of fungi cause severe poisoning:
- smelly mushroom
- false mushrooms,
- parterre mushroom
- satanic mushroom.
Improper cooking technology can cause poisoning by swellings, morels, stitches, and milk mushrooms.
Symptoms of mushroom poisoning
The first signs of mushroom poisoning usually occur several hours after they are consumed. The duration of the latent period depends on the type of poisonous mushrooms, their number, age, body weight, alcohol consumption and other causes. For example, when poisoning with pale toadstool, the incubation period can last up to 6-7 hours, and when eaten with lepiot or spiderweb, it extends to several weeks.
In case of mushroom poisoning, regardless of their type, some common symptoms are observed, similar to signs of other foodborne diseases. These include:
- pain in the stomach cramping character
In addition, there are signs characteristic of mushroom poisoning.
When poisoning with a toadstool, diarrhea and vomiting are plentiful, they can occur up to 30 times per day. Due to disturbances in the hemostatic system, blood is often present in the feces, and the vomitus takes on the form of coffee grounds. Victims experience convulsions, cardiovascular and respiratory insufficiency are increasing. The functions of the kidneys and liver suffer, up to the development of kidney and liver failure, which is the cause of the coma, and subsequently the death of the sick.
For poisoning govorushkami and fly agaric, in addition to common symptoms, characterized by the following symptoms:
- increased salivation,
- constriction of the pupils
- excessive sweating
- bronchospasm accompanied by shortness of breath,
- delusions and hallucinations,
In case of poisoning with a panther mushroom: pupil dilation, tachycardia, dry skin and mucous membranes.
The presence of convulsive syndrome, the development of toxic hepatitis, lesions of the spleen and kidneys are characteristic of poisoning by morels and lines. In the blood of patients with the destruction of the membranes of red blood cells (hemolysis), as a result, the urine becomes red.
The symptoms of mushroom poisoning in children are more pronounced, since the children's body is more sensitive to the effects of toxins.
When is medical treatment required?
In case of any poisoning with mushrooms, self-treatment is unacceptable. If even a small discomfort appears after eating mushrooms, it is necessary to urgently call an ambulance or take the victim to the hospital on your own.
Treatment of mushroom poisoning is carried out in toxicological departments. It includes:
- gastric lavage through a thick probe,
- the appointment of a saline laxative,
- conducting forced diuresis.
In case of poisoning with govorushkas and fly-agaric, atropine, which is the antidote of muscarin, is administered to the patient. The dosage of the drug and the frequency of its introduction are determined by the doctor.
If necessary, hemosorption is carried out using a coal column.
In addition, therapy is carried out aimed at eliminating damage to the liver, kidneys, nervous and other systems.
The consequences of mushroom poisoning, especially if the patient did not consult a doctor on time, can be very serious. So, mortality in poisoning with pale toadstool occurs in 50-90% of cases. Late medical assistance in case of poisoning with a mushroom becomes the cause of death of every second poisoned person.
Severe mushroom poisoning can cause the formation of chronic liver or kidney failure, which requires the transplantation of these organs.
It is dangerous to poison the mushrooms of pregnant women, since toxins of inedible fungi can penetrate the uteroplacental barrier and cause damage to the fetus, contribute to the occurrence of spontaneous miscarriage or premature birth.
To prevent mushroom poisoning, it is important to observe the following rules:
- collect only those mushrooms that are well known,
- do not eat wormy or overripe mushrooms,
- do not taste raw mushrooms,
- pick the mushrooms in the basket only,
- not to collect mushrooms growing along the roads, near large industrial enterprises, in the protection zone of radiation facilities,
- prepare mushrooms as soon as possible after collection, their long-term storage is unacceptable,
- when cooking mushrooms, they should be boiled once and poured the resulting broth,
- do not cook at home any kind of canned mushrooms,
- being in the forest, do not leave children without attention.
- Toxicity of the fungi themselves, due to the presence of toxins (or mycotoxins)
- Long-term storage of harvested mushrooms without cooking or long-term storage of already prepared mushrooms
- The defeat of fungi pests, in particular, fungal flies
- The joint use of mushrooms of some species (for example, dung beetles - Coprinus) with alcohol
- The accumulation in the process of growth of the fungus in the fruit bodies of substances harmful to the body (heavy metals, etc.)
Abuse of mushrooms, even of the first category, is harmful to the body, because mushrooms are a hard-to-digest food and with a large volume of semi-digested mass in the gastrointestinal tract, intoxication of the body can develop.
Наиболее часто случаются отравления грибами, которые имеют внешнее сходство со съедобными и случайно собираются вместе с ними. To avoid such an error, which can be fatal, it is necessary to study the general signs of fungi and to know the characteristic differences of poisonous species.
Only known species of mushrooms should be collected. Unknown or doubtful fruit bodies should not be eaten. It should be remembered that the characteristic signs may be absent in some specimens, for example, white flakes on the mushroom cap may be washed off by heavy rain, the cap of the toadstool, cut off at the very top, does not allow to notice the ring.
For children, many mushrooms are much more dangerous than for adults, so the use of even “good” mushrooms should be limited to children.
Mushrooms can be dangerous as accumulators of toxic substances (heavy metals, pesticides, radionuclides).
In case of severe mushroom poisoning, you must call a doctor.
Before the doctor arrives, the patient is placed in bed, the stomach is washed: give plenty of drink (4-5 glasses of boiled water at room temperature, drink in small sips) or light pink potassium permanganate solution and cause vomiting by pressing a finger or a smooth object on the root of the tongue. To remove the poison from the intestines immediately after washing the stomach they give a laxative and give an enema.
To clarify the diagnosis retain all uneaten mushrooms.
Treatment for mushroom poisoning depends on their type. Poisonous toadstool poisoning is accompanied by vomiting and dehydration; after washing the stomach, exchange blood transfusions, hemodialysis, glucose with insulin are administered intravenously, and atropine is given subcutaneously for breathing problems .
Among the mushrooms are deadly poisonous species, that is, capable of causing poisoning with a fatal outcome, even with a small number of eaten mushrooms. Mortally poisonous species are:
The toxicity of certain types of fungi is currently insufficiently studied, and these sources are often contradictory. First of all, this refers to the lines and false samples, the toxicity of which depends on the area of growth. However, the toxins contained in them: in the lines - hiromitrin, and in some types of false memories - falla- and amatoxins (toadsins of the pale toadstool) - are deadly.
Folk omens, "allowing to identify poisonous mushrooms," are based on a variety of misconceptions and do not allow to judge the danger of fungi:
- Poisonous mushrooms have an unpleasant odor, and edible ones have a pleasant smell (the smell of a pale toadstool is almost identical to that of champignon, although according to some, a pale toadstool has no smell at all)
- "Worms" (insect larvae) are not found in poisonous mushrooms (delusion)
- All mushrooms at a young age are edible (pale toadstool is deadly poisonous at any age)
- Silver items in the broth of the poisonous fungus blacken (delusion)
- Onion or garlic head turns brown when cooked with poisonous mushrooms (delusion)
- Poisonous fungi cause souring of milk (delusion)
The prejudice of the clear distinction between edible and poisonous mushrooms was reflected in herbariums of the 16th — 17th centuries. In the Great Herbarium (Great Britain, 1526), this description is given:
The principle of "edibility or inedibility" also formed the basis of the first scientific classifications, for example, in 1601 of C. Clusius (article in English. Charles de l'Écluse).
Phalloid poisoning Edit
Occurs with the use of some Amish fungi, such as a pale toadstool, smelly fly agaric or spring toadstool. The following highly toxic substances were found in the pulp of these mushrooms:
Fallin is neutralized by boiling, the remaining poisons are resistant to heat treatment and are not removed.
Falloidin begins to cause profound changes in the liver cells soon after ingestion; however, the first symptoms occur in 6–24 hours, sometimes in two days. Poisoning begins with severe pain in the abdomen, indomitable vomiting, severe sweating and diarrhea, the body temperature decreases. In severe cases (and almost all such poisonings are severe!) Renal and heart failure begins, coma and death occur. Poisoning can last up to twenty days.
Reliable treatment methods do not exist, even with timely medical care rendered, up to 70% of such poisonings are fatal. Successful treatment can only be achieved in the case of a quick diagnosis (before the onset of symptoms); anti-phalloid sera and thioctic acid are used for treatment.
Orellanin poisoning or paraphalloid syndrome Edit
Very severe poisoning, often fatal. Its symptoms are similar to symptoms of phalloidin poisoning. It is caused by the heat-resistant toxin orelanin, which is found in mushrooms such as the mountain spiderweb and some small lepiots, for example, in an umbrella with a fleshy reddish appearance.
Orellin is particularly insidious in that it has an unusually large latent period of action - the first signs of poisoning appear after a few days or even weeks. This makes both diagnosis and timely treatment very difficult.
The first manifestation is the appearance of unquenchable thirst, then headaches, pain in the abdomen and kidneys, a feeling of coldness in the limbs. Death can occur as a result of irreversible damage to the kidneys.
Mushrooms that cause this poisoning, usually do not attract the attention of mushroom pickers, so the cases of poisoning are rare.
Red and panther mushroom poisoning Edit
It may be accompanied by various types of symptoms, since these mushrooms vary greatly in the content of several poisons. Most commonly, poisoning is caused by muscarin, muscaridin (mycoatropin) and bufotenin. In the case of the predominance of muscarin and bufotenin, the main symptoms of poisoning are disorders of the nervous system, accompanied by delusions, hallucinations, hysteria and severe drowsiness. Muscaridin causes gastrointestinal disorders with abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhea, increased sweating, drooling, anuria, slowing heartbeat. Symptoms usually appear after 1 to 2 hours, so timely medical assistance is possible in the form of gastric lavage and symptomatic support of the nervous system and heart.
Muscarinic poisoning Edit
There are mushrooms that contain only muscarine and do not contain other poisons. These include some types of fiber optics and goathets (Clitocybe). Poisoning with these fungi is manifested after 1 - 2 hours, for muscarinic syndrome characterized by increased salivation, sweating, vomiting, diarrhea, bradycardia, slight constriction of the pupils. In severe cases, collapse, respiratory disorders, pulmonary edema occur.
First aid consists in removing poison from the gastrointestinal tract (gastric lavage, taking adsorbents). Atropine and other M-anticholinergics are used as antidotes. There may also be indications for the use of adrenomimetics or glucocorticoids. 
Poisoning with gelwell mushrooms. Edit
It can be caused by different types of stitches, the use of improperly cooked morel dishes [ source not specified 419 days ] fungi or their excessive use. The active principle is a series of substances called gyromitrins. These poisons can be partially (in morels) [ source not specified 419 days ] or completely (for individual copies of the lines) heat-resistant. Hiromitrins have a hemolytic effect, symptoms of poisoning are an increase in hemoglobin in the blood, jaundice, vomiting, diarrhea and severe drowsiness.
According to the NAMA (North Amarica Micological Assoiation) hiromitrin is contained (or may be contained under certain conditions) in the following mushrooms:
- Gyromitra esculenta
- Gyromitra ambigua
- Gyromitra infula
- In some other species Gyromitra especially in G.montanum, G.gigas, G.fastigiata (= brunnea), G.californica, G.sphaerospora
- As well as many related ascomycetes, such as some species Helvella, verpa and Cudonia spp.
- Raincoat (lines) - the earliest and most delicious mushroom, its inedible fellow - rainbow hedgehog, which has a darker color and a surface covered with long spikes. Contains galvellic acid.
- White mushroom or boletus - “King” of mushrooms, has a very poisonous relative - bilious or damned mushroom, gorchak, false boletus has a brighter color, pronounced scaly surface of the stem, extending to the base. Contains muscarinic poisonous bitterness, which determines the taste of the fungus.
- Autumn honeycomb –Has several types of inedible twins, they are distinguished by a brighter color, a loose thin leg and white milky juice in the pulp, and it contains the toxic substance psilocybin.
- Amanita - has several types: red, panther, ovoid, grebe and others. Contains poison muscarin and atropinopodobnye alkaloids, which causes severe poisoning. There is 1 edible type of mushroom - Caesar mushroom.
- False honey agarics, russula, gall mushroom. The gastrointestinal tract is affected, up to ulcerative defects and internal bleeding, the cardiovascular system - pressure drops, pulse speeds up.
- Lines (raincoat)containing galvanic acid. Cells of a liver, a brain are affected, erythrocytes are destroyed (hemolysis).
- Amanitacontaining muscarin and atropine-like toxins. The sympatho-adrenal system is inhibited: the pupils are constricted, the pulse is weakened, the heart rate slows down, breathing is inhibited, saliva and perspiration are abundant, and hallucinations appear.
- Pale toadstoolcontaining phalloidin, amantine. There is a destruction of liver cells due to the inhibition of important cellular structures - ATP, DNA, enzymes, developing acute liver failure. The level of glucose is sharply reduced, the central nervous system suffers. Also damaged kidney cells without the possibility of recovery. If the patient survives after such poisonings, then he needs a kidney or liver transplant.
- Acute Liver Failure.
- Acute renal failure.
- Heart disturbance down to a stop.
- Hypoxia of the brain with the development of edema and cerebral coma.
- Respiratory failure.
- Gastrointestinal bleeding.
Hallucinogenic poisoning Edit
The most studied as hallucinogenic - mushrooms of the genus Psilocybe, as the active principle they contain psilocin and psilocybin. There is also information about the hallucinogenic properties of some fungi from the genera Panaeolus) and Conocybe. Substances of these mushrooms are referred to psychotomimetics or psychodisleptics - causing mental disorders. Poisoning is accompanied by a rapid decrease in blood pressure, sweating, dilated pupils, a feeling of intoxication and fatigue. Soon, signs of severe psychosis with hallucinations appear, ideas about space and time are distorted, there can be depressive states, sometimes leading to suicide .
Manure poisoning Edit
These mushrooms are eaten as conditionally edible, however, if you use alcohol with some of the species, dangerous poisoning can occur . You can also get poisoned if you take alcohol for 1 to 2 days after drinking this fungus.
Signs of poisoning: anxiety, redness of the face, slow pulse and pain in the intestines. The syndrome usually lasts 2 to 3 days.
Actual beginning (koprin ) inhibits the enzyme aldehyde oxidase, thereby delaying the metabolism of alcohol at the stage of formation of acetic aldehyde, which has a toxic effect.
Gastrointestinal poisoning Edit
Typical gastrointestinal symptoms can be caused by many fungi, which are usually considered to be poorly poisonous, as well as conditionally edible if they are not cooked properly. Such poisoning can also occur when consuming old, over-ripe mushrooms, or which have long been stored in inappropriate conditions.
Symptoms appear after a few hours in the form of abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhea and fever, in severe cases accompanied by cramps and loss of consciousness. Usually, poisoning goes away after a few days, but can provoke serious complications, especially in children and the elderly.
The most famous poisonous fungi intestinal action:
Accumulation of radionuclides Edit
The danger is also posed by fungi contaminated with cesium-137 and other radionuclides, primarily as a result of Chernobyl fallout, emissions and the explosion at the Mayak nuclear plant, and emissions from nuclear power plants. In 2009, Rospotrebnadzor published data on mushrooms in the Leningrad region, the content of cesium-137 in which significantly exceeds the norm : up to 1390 Bq / kg (in Kingisepp District) with the maximum allowable level of cesium-137 in fresh mushrooms 500 Bq / kg (according to Russian  and Ukrainian legislation) and 370 Bq / kg (according to Belarusian legislation . Published studies show that the pollution level of fungi near the Leningrad NPP is significantly higher .
According to the degree of accumulation of cesium-137 (radioactive cesium), edible mushrooms are divided into four groups :
Radiation more actively goes to the mushrooms with a developed mycelium. The concentration of radionuclides in mushroom caps is 1.5–2 times higher than in the legs, especially for mushrooms with a well-developed leg (white fungus, boletus, boletus, Polish mushroom). Reducing the content of cesium-137 in mushrooms can be achieved by boiling them for 30–60 minutes in salted water with the addition of vinegar or citric acid with a 2-3-fold change of broth. [ source not specified 2688 days ] Collected mushrooms before cooking must be cleaned from moss, bedding, soil, and in some mushrooms to remove the skin from the cap. Also, to reduce the radionuclide content, the mushrooms are soaked for 24 hours, boiled several times by draining the water, washing the mushrooms.
Types of poisonous mushrooms
The appealing smell and appetizing appearance are often confusing to an inexperienced mushroom picker, and he puts a poisonous mushroom in the basket. The fact is that most edible mushrooms have their poisonous counterpart, which must be able to determine. The main representatives of such "couples", distributed throughout the country, are:
What happens in the body with poisoning?
Toxins of poisonous mushrooms are rapidly absorbed into the blood and act, depending on their chemical composition. According to the features of the action of these toxins emit 4 types of poisoning:
Symptoms of poisoning by pale toadstool
The first signs of poisoning by such mushrooms as grebe appear several hours before the day: repeated vomiting, severe abdominal cramps, diarrhea mixed with blood, great thirst, severe pallor, reduced vision. Then imaginary improvement occurs during the day, after which the condition worsens dramatically, yellowness appears, swelling, pressure drops, breathing becomes difficult, coma develops and death occurs.
Signs of intoxication to the toadstools
Signs of poisoning with such mushrooms occur in 2-3 hours: abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhea, pupils constrict, profuse sweating appears, salivation appears, shortness of breath, pressure drops, pulse becomes rare, consciousness is disturbed, hallucinations appear. The condition is rarely severe, mortality does not exceed 5%.
Poisoning with false lines (raincoat)
Symptoms appear after 8 hours: nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea, headache, general weakness. On the 2nd day skin yellowness appears., later depression of brain function - confusion of consciousness - develops. Poisoning is rarely heavy, mortality is about 1%.
Intoxication by false specimens
Manifestations begin as early as 1 hour after eating mushrooms: nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, chills, general weakness, diarrhea with blood, pressure drop and increased pulse.
If you get a lot of toxin with mushrooms, brain function is disturbed - disorientation, hallucinations, confusion. As a rule, these poisonings pass without a trace, if assistance is provided and treatment is given.
When do I need to see a doctor?
When poisoning with mushrooms, it is always necessary to seek medical help, and one cannot wait for the next day to make an appointment, even if the patient’s condition is not serious.
The patient is hospitalized in the toxicology department, in severe cases - in intensive care, where intensive detoxification therapy is carried out, normalization of water-electrolyte and acid-base balance, antidotes, drugs are introduced to normalize the heart, pressure, respiration, kidneys.
In cases of severe intoxication with hepatic and renal insufficiency, the patient is connected to hemodialysis for blood purification. Constant monitoring of the main body functions and laboratory monitoring of blood and urine tests are carried out.
Recovery of the body after poisoning
After being discharged at home during the recovery period, it is necessary to be monitored by a doctor and take prescribed medications, vitamin preparations. To restore the damaged mucous membrane of the stomach and intestines, a sparing diet is necessary, taking enveloping means, herbal infusions.
The daily ration should include a sufficient amount of easily digestible protein, vitamins., animal fats should be limited, coarse fiber (raw vegetables and fruits) should be excluded. You also need to abandon spicy dishes, seasonings, sauces, smoked foods, pickles, marinades, muffins, confectionery, citrus. Exclude products that cause intestinal flatulence - whole milk, legumes. Fresh low-fat fermented milk products, cottage cheese are useful.
Dishes should be boiled, steamed or stewed, not hot or cold. The multiplicity of meals should be increased to 5-6 times a day, and its one-time volume should be reduced to 250-300 ml. Из напитков предпочтительны некрепкий зеленый чай, ромашковый и липовый чай, минеральная вода, некислые соки. Нельзя употреблять газированные напитки и алкоголь.
The duration of the recovery period is individual, it can be from 3 days to 1-2 months, depending on the severity of the poisoning.
Effects of poisoning
The body is not able to neutralize fungal toxins, so a delay in seeking medical help can lead to the development of serious consequences, such as:
In the long-term period after severe poisoning, liver cirrhosis, chronic renal failure, chronic gastritis, colitis, peptic ulcer can develop.
Death with mushroom flavor
In Europe, for example, the mushrooms growing in the forests are not harvested at all. They are initially considered poisonous. But in our countries in the post-Soviet space, it is customary to organize a “silent hunt” annually, and with the victims from the side of the hunters themselves.
Therefore, it is important to know the symptoms of mushroom poisoning, how to provide first aid to the victim. Poisoning with poisonous mushrooms is a very serious threat to health and life; in severe cases, the expense of time in the struggle for a person’s life can go on for hours and even minutes. Therefore, it is important not to get lost and know what to do and how to behave in such a situation.
Causes of mushroom poisoning
There are a lot of causes of mushroom poisoning, there are cases when a person suffered from the use of mushrooms, even if they were not poisonous and did not contain any toxins.
Consider the main hazards to which attention should be paid.
- Poisoning by toxins that are found in fungi is toxic substances that are part of the fungus itself and are the product of its vital activity.
- Mycotoxin poisoning of fungi is mold micro-fungi, which are not only on the spoiled bread, but also on the caps of mushrooms in the forest.
- Poisoning, as a result of long-term storage of harvested mushrooms without cooking.
- Poisoning with cooked mushrooms - insufficient heat treatment causes the bacteria that produce toxins to multiply in the mushrooms.
- The infestation of fungi by specific pests, such as a mushroom fly.
- The use of certain types of mushrooms with alcohol.
- The accumulation in the mycelium of the fungus of harmful substances from the external environment - radionuclides or heavy metals. If the mushrooms grow in areas with a heavy and chemical industry, or in the place of release of radioactive substances, the poisoning may be due to the cumulative properties of the fungi.
- Poisoning with too many eaten mushrooms is a very difficult protein in the mushrooms for the digestive system, especially if a person already has chronic diseases of the liver, stomach, or digestive glands.
Poisonous fungi and signs of mushroom poisoning
Many different classifications of poisonous mushrooms have been adopted, which are convenient for various fields of activity. In medicine, they are classified according to the type of the affected organ or syndromic. The discussion will focus on initially poisonous mushrooms.
Fungi that contain fast-acting cyclopeptides (phallotoxins) and slow-acting amatoxins:
- death cap,
- the gallery,
- small umbrellas.
This type of toxins is very strong. One mushroom is enough to poison several adults. For the defeat of children, the elderly or initially weakened people, and even less.
The lethal dose is 0.1 mg / kg body weight. One cap of the toadstool contains 16 mg of poison. The clinical picture of mushroom poisoning develops after at least 6 hours and up to a maximum of 48 hours.
Amatoxin blocks, at the cellular level, protein synthesis in hepatocytes and in the kidney cells, which leads to the death of the entire organ.
It begins with an acute disorder of the chair. Sudden and severe diarrhea, vomiting, excretion of large amounts of urine, and indomitable thirst and even seizures.
Approximately in three days these symptoms disappear, and the patient becomes a little better, but this is an imaginary improvement. Following relief comes jaundice, as a sign of liver failure, which is impossible to stop. In the composition of the liver failure appears increased bleeding from all vessels. The patient slowly, but inevitably, dies from insufficiency of the liver and kidneys.
Diagnosis of such poisoning is difficult, because people often seek help after diarrhea has passed and the icteric color of the skin has appeared.
Mushrooms from this group of inexperienced or inattentive people can confuse:
- pale toadstools - with green russules, greenfinches, gray rows,
- white and stinky toadstools - with champignons,
- fringed gallery with a summer opening.
Mushrooms containing the toxic substance monomethylhydrazine, which is a hemolytic poison.
- lines and related to them gelviolovye,
- Lobster mushrooms,
The first symptoms of poisoning appear after 6 hours, but in some cases the time may be reduced to 2 hours. It all starts as classic signs of anemia. Dizziness, increased tiredness, heaviness in the head, or headaches. Pain in the stomach, vomiting. Then jaundice appears.
Yellow skin tinge with liver failure suggests that the liver can not properly dispose of the products of destroyed red blood cells. And since the erythrocyte lives only 120 days, the process of the formation of new and the destruction of old erythrocytes continuously occurs in the body.
Thus, if too many red blood cells die or the liver cells cannot perform their functions, the bilirubin is absorbed into the blood and turns the skin yellow.
Poisonous mushrooms from this group can be confused with common morel.
But this hemolytic poison is easily destroyed by heat. With sufficient cooking, morels are not dangerous.
Mushrooms that contain orelanin, grimmaline, cortinarine. This group includes such mushrooms as:
Insidious poisonous substances do not immediately appear, but only after 3 or even 14 days. During this time, the poison has time to destroy the glomeruli. These are structural units of the kidney. The smaller the glomerulus, the worse the kidney copes with its functions.
Symptoms of renal failure begin with a change in the amount of urine released. First, a lot of urine, and then a little or not at all. Along with this, urea appears in the blood - this chemical should not be in the bloodstream, it is poisonous in its own way for the body and normally excreted in the urine. Uremia, which literally translates as urine in the blood, poisons every cell in the body. And in every organ, it manifests itself either as inflammation or dystrophy.
There is no specific treatment. Death occurs as a result of kidney failure.
These mushrooms are confused with edible cobwebs.
Mushrooms that contain the substance koprin. An interesting property of this substance is that in itself it is not dangerous, but in combination with alcohol, there are signs of poisoning and quite specific - these are dung mushrooms.
The effect will be, even if the person took alcohol after a few days. After about half an hour, the face turns red first and then the hyperemia appears on the rest of the body. Then join tachycardia or a feeling of palpitations and stomach pain and dyspeptic manifestations. Vomiting, as often accompanied by poisoning of these mushrooms.
Fortunately, the poisoning is not fatal, and the resulting symptoms are used to combat alcoholism.
The accumulation of toxins in fungi
Even edible mushrooms familiar to everyone can be a source of poisoning. The body of the fungus during growth accumulates in itself all those harmful substances that surround it. Mushroom like a sponge leaves in itself the salts of heavy metals, which are deposited in large quantities on plants and mushrooms along the highway from the exhaust gases of automobiles.
Even in artificially grown mushrooms there can be harmful substances that accumulate in the mushroom from a large amount of insecticide, which the mushroom owner introduces to control pests. After all, the one who grows these mushrooms is not interested in whether the product will be poisonous, he is interested in the presentation.
There are also twins of edible mushrooms, which inexperienced mushroom pickers can easily confuse and collect in their basket.
Beliefs, myths and delusions
Among lovers of feast on wild-growing mushrooms, there is a mass of signs that supposedly indicate the degree of poisonousness of mushrooms. Immediately it should be noted that all of them are nothing more than fairy tales and are not confirmed by anything.
Misconception the first. If mushrooms are gathered in a meadow or in a field, they are not poisonous - this is not true, despite the fact that the growth of a pale toadstool is still a forest belt, and sometimes it can be found in a meadow.
Fallacy second. All mushrooms at a young age are not poisonous. Remember - poisonous mushrooms are dangerous at any age!
Misconception third. Dangerous mushrooms smell unpleasant. This statement is not true - many poisonous mushrooms have a pleasant mushroom flavor.
Fallacy fourth. Insects or snails do not live on poisonous mushrooms. This is a fundamentally wrong statement. Insects are not susceptible to fungal toxins, so they don’t care where they live.
Misconception the fifth. If you throw mushrooms or garlic in a pot, where mushrooms are boiled, they will turn black with poisonous mushrooms. Both onions and garlic can darken, but only when interacting with fungal enzymes, which are in edible mushrooms.
Misconception sixth. If it is good to boil the mushrooms, even poisonous, with salt and vinegar, they cease to be dangerous. This is an unfair statement, there are toxins, especially in the toadstool and the mushroom mushroom, which are not destroyed by high temperatures.
First aid for mushroom poisoning
If, after eating mushrooms for several hours or later, symptoms of intoxication and signs of poisoning begin to appear. Perhaps the appearance of diarrhea or vomiting, or simply deterioration, headache, flushing of the face and other listed above. Especially if there is an icteric staining of the skin and mucous membranes.
Call an ambulance immediately.
If there was a connection with the use of mushrooms, be sure to tell about the arrived brigade, and if there are remains of these mushrooms, they should be saved and sent to the determination of toxins.
Since the main cause of mushroom poisoning is toxins that have entered the blood, respectively, the main measure to be taken in assisting with mushroom poisoning is the removal of toxins that have not yet been absorbed into the blood.
This is done in several ways:
Wash the stomach and cause vomiting in the affected person - this can be done mechanically, you need to give the patient to drink a liter or one and a half of boiled water or a weak solution of potassium permanganate. After that, put your fingers on the root of the tongue and induce vomiting.
Take sorbents. It is necessary to drink a fairly large dose of sorbents at the rate of one tablet per 10 kg of human weight. To simplify the process of reception, you can grind tablets into powder and mix them with one glass of water. Of course, this will be possible if the patient is conscious and can independently drink and eat.
To induce vomiting. If symptoms appear, then toxins have already entered the bloodstream. The task is to remove the remains of mushrooms from the digestive tract and prevent them from being absorbed. To do this, give the victim from 1 liter to 1.6 liters of water with a solution of sodium chloride. Per liter of water is not a full tablespoon of salt. After that, induce vomiting.
Make an enema. The same must be done to remove the digested fungi from the intestines. Make a cleansing enema with an Esmarkh mug. Also with a salt solution of the same concentration. It is important to remember that children can not do an enema with warm water without salt - this can lead to absorption of water from the rectal mucosa and swelling of the brain.
Put the victim from mushroom poisoning in bed, try to calm him down. To reduce the risk of circulatory disorders, you need to put heat on the stomach and the legs of the patient.
Drink strong tea or water.
How to prevent mushroom poisoning
To protect yourself and your loved ones from the tragic consequences of eating mushrooms, you need to be extremely careful and observe safety measures if you decide to treat yourself to a mushroom dinner.
Also, it is important to know which mushrooms are edible.
An attempt to diversify the diet and feast on fragrant fried mushrooms can turn into a fatal tragedy. If you feel the strength of a great mushroom picker and are not afraid to run into a poisonous mushroom, this is your business, but do not endanger your children and loved ones.
Life cannot be brought back, and the wrong conclusions made will forever change someone's life. It is very important to recognize the symptoms of poisoning in time and know the actions of first aid in case of poisoning with mushrooms.
Remember that even edible and obviously not poisonous fungus can be a poison due to many circumstances such as the ecological state of the zone in which the fungus grows or the abundance of parasites and other insects. Take an example from an educated Europe, in which collecting wild mushrooms is considered a bad form.
How to suspect poisoning
Describing the first signs of fungal intoxication syndrome, the main types should be distinguished.
Type 1 - gastroenteritis with intoxication with a pale toadstool. High toxicity provides mortality of 40-90%. Deaths are due to late treatment, although the first signs can be seen 1 hour after consumption. The similarity with the champignon, russula does not allow a person to tell the doctor about the type of toxic agent. Effective home treatment is not possible. The first signs of toadstool poisoning occur late - after 8-14 hours. Increased pulse, increased urination, renal-hepatic failure - late manifestations.
With timely detection of the first signs of severe complications are prevented:
- Temperature rise,
- Rapid pulse.
If you do not compare the manifestations with the use of fungi, it is difficult to predict intoxication syndrome on the background of intoxication.
Similar changes cause gall fungus. Only its concentration is significantly higher for lesions of the internal organs.
The health hazards include the following symptoms:
- Strong gastroenterocolitis,
- Severe abdominal pain,
- Indomitable vomiting,
- Cholera syndrome
- Muscle cramps
- Vomiting and diarrhea on the second day.
Mortality according to statistics is due to late treatment - for 2-3 days.
Amanita poisoning - the second type of disease
Amanita is a mushroom with a red cap, white specks. Toxicity is caused by poisons - mycoatropin, muscarine, mouse poison.
Symptoms of mushroom poisoning occur after 2-5 hours:
- Abdominal pain
- Constriction of the pupils
- Excessive sweating
- Increased dyspnea,
- Decreased pulse.
Against the background of pathology, a shift in mental activity develops. When expressed symptoms appear delusional hallucinatory syndrome. The consequences of pathology - a coma. Attacks of fear, compression of the pharynx cause a person to fear for his life.
Mortality from the mushroom is low (about 3%) at high concentrations of toxin.
Intoxication lines - type 3 gastroenterocolitis
The lines contain gelwell acid in low concentrations (0.3-0.4%). Toxin content varies with weather conditions. Concentration decreases in the sun. With high ambient humidity, gelwell acid becomes larger.
The first signs appear after 6-10 hours:
- Feeling unwell,
- More frequent stools
- Strong headache,
- Indomitable vomiting.
A feature of the condition is jaundice on the second day of the disease. The reason for its occurrence - an increase in the liver. The destruction of red blood cells characterizes the hemolytic variant of the disease. When there is no qualified treatment, the degree of hemolysis exceeds 20%. The state of danger of hypoxia of the brain, the lack of oxygen to the internal organs.
To prevent intoxication syndrome, it is enough to boil morels for 15 minutes. To reduce poisonous quality allows the use of less than 200 grams of mushrooms.
Gall fungus - a source of type IV poisoning
Intoxication syndrome when taking a gall fungus, false agaric honey, voloshek, syrleuzhek observed after 1-5 hours. Symptoms of the disease are not acute. The first signs are:
- Abdominal pain
- Gastrointestinal bleeding,
- Sudden pressure drop
- Rapid pulse.
Such effects are caused by the low toxicity of the gall fungus.
Symptoms and syndromes of mushroom poisoning
Symptoms of mushroom poisoning occur at different times. The nature of the manifestations is influenced by the concentration of poison, individual health features, treatment tactics.
The main syndromes of intoxication syndrome:
- Anticholinergic (atropine),
- Cholinomimetic (muscarinic),
- Teturam-like (coprin),
- Gastroenteric (resinoid).
A long hidden period appears in the following syndromes:
От того через сколько, и какой симптом наступает после грибного отравления, зависит клиническая картина, тактика лечения болезни.
Особо опасен фаллоидный синдром, появляющийся после употребления следующих видов грибов: мухомор, бледная поганка. Они содержат аманитотоксины, имеющие длительный интервал действия. The first signs begin not earlier than in 6 hours.
The toxic effect on the organelles of the hepatocytes, the cell membranes of the kidneys, the intestines is affected when it enters the blood of 0.1 mg per kilogram of poison. The greatest concentration is in the cap. Amanitotoxins are slower. Fallotoxins act faster, but the manifestations are less pronounced. The mechanism of action of poisons is the blockade of the enzyme RNA polymerase, which is responsible for the respiratory cycle.
With prolonged persistence of the toxin, the liver increases due to the defeat of hepatocytes, destruction of cell membranes. A vicious circle during prolonged intoxication develops due to the elimination of the toxin from the liver and bile into the gastrointestinal tract and its reverse suction through the intestinal walls. Thus, the toxin is not eliminated from the feces. The main function of its destruction lies with the liver, the reserve capacity, which is not limitless.
High mortality due to irreversible changes in the kidneys, liver.
Teturam-like syndrome is manifested by tonic muscle cramps. The contraction of the muscles of the lower limbs leads to the immobilization of the person. If the condition continues for a long time, the likelihood of complete paralysis of the muscular system increases. A similar condition is observed with teturam overdose.
Hallucinatory syndrome occurs when taking mushrooms containing psychogenic substances. Toxins are used to make drugs for criminal purposes. Their overdose is addictive.
Hallucinations in the use of mushrooms are euphoric. The patient does not want to get out of the state of "high", which contributes to the late treatment of doctors, the high frequency of deaths.
To determine the severity of clinical symptoms should distinguish the main periods of the disease:
- Hidden (latent) - comes after the ingress of poison. Lasts 3-4 hours
- Gastrointestinal - appears after 1-3 hours, reaches a maximum after 5-8 hours,
- Imaginary well-being - the symptoms disappear, so it seems to a person that the state is normalizing. Re-clinical picture occurs after 3-4 hours
- The end result is recovery or mortality.
Only the gall fungus does not form similar clinical manifestations. Due to the low bitterness, the main changes are observed on the part of the liver.
Treatment of mushroom poisoning: symptomatic, folk remedies
When mushrooms intoxication treatment begins with first aid at home. It is necessary to wash the stomach with water, a solution of potassium permanganate. Vomiting helps to remove toxins from the stomach. Relief comes an hour after the gag reflex. Artificial vomiting cleans the stomach from food debris, poisons.
To prevent the toxin from entering the gastrointestinal tract, it is advisable to drink adsorbents. Activated carbon powder (6-8 tablets) is drunk one-time. To speed up the removal of poison used laxatives (soybean, castor oil). At home help cleansing enemas. It is necessary to make them clean water (1 liter) for 5-7 minutes.
After the above procedures, the stomach is heated by a heating pad, covered with a warm cloth. Man gives warm tea. Symptomatic treatment is carried out before the ambulance arrives.
Symptomatic treatment of mushroom poisoning
An antidote is applied at home. Intoxication syndrome in the use of red mushroom is eliminated by the introduction under the skin of 1 ml of 0.1% solution of atropine. The procedure is repeated three times a day with an interval of 0.5 hours.
Elimination of spasm of the bronchial tree is carried out with euspirin, novodrin, caffeine.
You can not use acidic foods, acids that increase the penetration of muscarine into the enterocytes.
Poisoning with a gall fungus, false specimens should be aimed at eliminating dehydration, collapse. Ringer's solutions, gemodez, polidez, polyglukin intravenously, 4-5 liters per day are used for detoxification.
Increased blood pressure is mezaton, norepinephrine. Liver is treated with hydrocortisone.
Recovery of heart failure occurs after consuming korglikon, strophanthin.
How many mushrooms poisoning comes
First aid at home does not depend on how much mushroom poisoning comes, but further symptomatic treatment requires knowledge of aspects of the clinical picture. The time of onset of symptoms depends on the poison contained in the mushroom. In case of poisoning with amanitotoxins, the first signs occur in 5-8 hours. Phalloidins cause a clinical picture in 2-4 hours. The effect is short-term, but with an increased dosage of poison without the use of an antidote, a fatal outcome is quite likely.
After 30 minutes, mushroom poisoning rarely occurs. Only in older people, weakened children are symptoms likely.
How much poisoning by fungi comes depends on the type of toxin, the individual rate of biochemical reactions. Toxic properties have peptides of fungi. Additional pathogenic properties are characterized by unique poisons - amanitin (in galerin, mushroom, lepiota, pale toadstool). After absorption of toxins from the gastrointestinal tract, the blood supply is disturbed.
Absorption of poison occurs in 4-22 hours. The first symptom is diarrhea. After 50-65 hours, the concentration of blood glucose decreases, which is accompanied by tremor of the limbs. Yellowing of the skin, mucous membranes occurs due to liver failure. Such symptoms in most cases are formed 2-3 days after poisoning.
Cyclic lesion of hepatocytes (with repeated suction from the intestine after discharge from the bile) is accompanied by pulmonary, hepatic, renal failure. Against this background, the concentration of blood urea increases, followed by damage to the cerebral cortex, the development of hemorrhages in the internal parenchymal organs.
Weakness, drowsiness, impaired movement occurs within an hour after oral ingestion of mushrooms. Heartbeat, rapid breathing, loss of appetite - after the accumulation of a dose of toxins in the blood. Symptoms appear 3 hours after taking the next dose.
What to do if mushroom poisoning at home
At home, it is important to properly do first-aid procedures: gastric lavage, gag reflex, use of laxatives, enema, symptomatic treatment.
From the old folk remedies recommended strong warm tea. Several times a day you need to take a warm drink to improve the blood supply to the intestines, but only after cleaning the gastrointestinal tract.
Intestinal microcirculation is enhanced by heating the abdomen with a hot-water bottle, compresses, and warm woolen scarves. The technique is dangerous to accelerate the absorption of toxins with insufficient washing of the intestine. Warming is not recommended by modern doctors because of the unforeseen effects after increasing the local blood supply.
Home symptomatic treatment of children, elderly patients should not be carried out because of the risk of serious complications.
Procedures for the removal of toxins in a non-standard scheme:
- Activation of vomiting by stimulating the root of the tongue with fingers
- Washing with sodium chloride (2%). Once you can not use the amount of water in excess of 75% of the volume of the stomach. To calculate the size should apply the formula - 0.5 liters per year of life,
- Introduction enterosorbent - activated carbon at a dose of 1 gram per kilogram of body weight. You can arrest the acute period with other enterosorbents (enterosgel),
- Gastric lavage is carried out every 8 hours after hospitalization,
- Saline solutions are not used due to inflammation of the stomach, small intestine.
The rest of the treatment tactics will be selected by the attending physician.
Methods for the removal of absorbed toxins:
- Download salt solutions (enterally) at the termination of vomiting. Preservation of the gag reflex requires the introduction of glucose solutions (speed 10 ml per kilogram per hour) during the first 6 hours of therapy,
- Furosemide in a dose of 1 mg per kilogram - only in the absence of urination,
- Duration after 6 hours of treatment. The rate, amount of therapy is determined individually by the doctor.
Symptomatic treatment of mushroom poisoning is aimed at the normalization of water and electrolyte balance, elimination of dehydration.
To determine the efficacy, it is necessary to stop exsicosis, intoxication, and gastrointestinal changes.
Gall fungus poisoning - the main signs and symptoms
False (gall) mushroom in the people is called Gorchak. The main toxic ingredient is bitterness. The substance can not be processed culinary procedures. Scientific studies have identified hepatotropic poisons. Compounds destroy liver cells, which determines the time through which the poisoning of the gall fungus occurs. With chronic intoxication, the first signs are observed after a few months. Poisoning factors persist even when marinating.
There is an opinion of foreign researchers that fungal toxins affect internal organs after tactile contact. The destructive effect of substances comes gradually. When you test for language, there is weakness, headache, dizziness.
Poisoning with a gall fungus is not only associated with liver damage. Weakness, dizziness occur due to ingestion of toxins in the blood.
Unfortunately, people very often use the bile fungus for food. Even forest animals do not taste bitterness. Gorchak does not contain chemical compounds useful for humans, so you need to think about adding it to food.
Statistics indicate that the number of gall mushroom poisoning increases annually. Polish scientists have doubts about the rationality of the use of this product in food. There are practically no useful substances in it, and a lot of toxins.
Folk remedies for mushroom poisoning
At home, using folk remedies to neutralize poisons of the gastrointestinal tract is allowed only when combined with other procedures recommended by a doctor.
When vomiting should drink vodka with the addition of a large amount of salt. Hyperconcentrated solution draws out fluid from the body, which promotes the removal of toxic substances.
Attention! Hyperconcentrated solutions promote dehydration, therefore it is recommended to use them sparingly. Vodka with salt is best alternated with orange juice, which is consumed every 15 minutes. In all cases of deterioration of health, immediately consult a doctor.
In case of poisoning with ptomaine, foreign sources recommend cinnamon tea. According to the description, it eliminates all intoxication signs 3 days after the start of use.
To prepare the drug, boil 2 cinnamon fingers for 5 minutes. Drink until the tea is hot.
Poisoning with metallic poisons (lead, mercury) is eliminated by egg white added to a cup of milk. After beating with a mixer, an effective medicine is obtained.
What to do when poisoning by popular recommendations:
- Drink dill with honey (a spoon of dill in a glass of honey)
- Drink fresh potato juice,
- Take 0.5 cup of valerian (chop the root, boil in 0.5 liters of water),
- Crushed lime or willow coals, added to milk, help with arsenic poisoning. Drink 5 spoons per day,
- Add 200 grams of magnesium carbonate to a glass of fresh milk. Give a person three times a day. Fresh milk neutralizes toxins, reduces the severity of inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract.
In conclusion, it should be added that poisoning is better to prevent than to cure. It is enough to properly heat the mushrooms, wash hands before eating, follow the rules for storing food.
Even edible mushrooms cause poisoning if they grow along motorways and chemical plants. Radioactive substances gradually destroy organs. It is necessary to think about the rationality of collecting questionable mushrooms.
Medical assistance for mushroom poisoning
In case of mushroom poisoning, the patient must be hospitalized. The first signs of intoxication syndrome can appear only by the end of the first day, when the concentration of poison increases.
Principles of qualified assistance:
- If you have an appetite to relieve the condition of the stomach, we recommend unsweetened tea with crackers. For any type of intoxication, a Pevsner diet is applied, which is classified as gentle. It does not require product restrictions. Excluded only spicy, smoked, fried. Food is taken fractionally
- To relieve inflammatory changes, you can take aspirin (not assigned to children), caffetin, nurofen. drugs can not be drunk on an empty stomach to eliminate irritation,
- Dried fruit based on dried fruits are rich in potassium, which is necessary for the cardiovascular and muscular systems,
- Adsorbents (alka-prim, entegnine, enterosgel, activated carbon) are removed from the intestines,
Assistance with poisoning before the arrival of the ambulance,
- Empty the stomach by drinking liquid
- Vomiting by pressing on the root of the tongue,
- Drink strong coffee, tea without sugar.
If a person is unconscious, he is placed on his stomach without a pillow. The head is turned to the side to prevent vomit from entering the respiratory system. Inhalation of ammonia vapors in most cases allows the patient to return to a conscious state.
Methyl alcohol substitutes poisoning requires the introduction of antidotes. For these purposes, a person is given a drink of pure brandy. By natural substitution in biochemical reactions, pure ethanol replaces the more toxic methanols.
The rest of the help is provided by physicians:
- Gastric lavage 3 days,
- Intravenous detoxification,
- Introduction of prednisolone, atropine, vitamins.
In fact, mushroom poisoning is easy. Even conditionally edible species that people collect annually, under certain environmental conditions, can become more toxic. If you doubt the usefulness of the product, it is better not to eat it!
Botulism: how to determine and what to do?
Botulism is a severe food poisoning by mushrooms infected with botulinum sticks, more precisely, its toxin, which is much more dangerous than potassium cyanide. It is precisely the pickled mushrooms that are the most frequent cause when the technology of preserving and storing rolled up cans is violated.
Is it possible to determine the presence of botulinum toxin in the bank? Reliable signs do not exist. Only some types of botulism sticks can cause gas formation and brine turbidity, the appearance of spots on mushrooms. In most cases, neither the appearance nor the taste of the infected canned mushroom does not change. If in doubt, it is better to take the product to the nearest sanitary epidemiological station, where the laboratory will conduct an accurate analysis.
If after eating canned mushrooms for 8-36 hours, symptoms such as dry mouth, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, headache, double vision, decreased vision, drooping of the eyelids, difficulty breathing, muscle weakness appeared, this indicates botulism. It is necessary to immediately call an ambulance, wash the sick stomach, intestines, give an enterosorbent and drink plenty of fluids. Treatment is carried out only in a hospital.