Means and drugs for nausea and vomiting in children
Vomiting is a protective reaction of the body. From the stomach, along with the remnants of undigested food and gastric juice, poisons and toxins that have fallen into it are removed. A single gag urge does not pose a danger to the life and health of the baby, but when the situation repeats several times in a row, the child may become dehydrated. Independently fight with vomiting is undesirable, because not knowing the exact cause of the disease, you can harm the children's body. In this situation, parents should as soon as possible show the child to a specialist.
Possible causes of vomiting in children
Indomitable vomiting can occur in a child for several reasons:
- Most often, the urge to vomit occur due to poisoning. Stale or undercooked food, household chemicals and medicines left in an easily accessible place that the baby decided to taste, can cause a similar condition. The child's body reflexively begins to get rid of the poisonous substance. In this case, you should immediately call an ambulance to avoid more serious consequences of intoxication.
- Sometimes vomiting is a symptom of rotavirus or an intestinal infection. The first signs of the disease can be seen 12-16 hours before the appearance of the urge to vomit: the child becomes sluggish and his body temperature rises.
- Gastroenteritis is often associated with repeated vomiting and diarrhea. If these symptoms appear more often than 5 times per hour, the patient requires urgent hospitalization. This is necessary not only to protect others from infection - in a hospital, a weakened patient's body will be helped quickly to cope with dehydration.
- Meningitis can also cause vomiting. The main symptoms by which you can independently diagnose this disease: when the head is tilted forward, the child feels a strong pain in the back of the head, there are muscle spasms that do not allow the knees to be pulled to the chin. Meningitis is a disease with a high risk of death. If there is any suspicion that this particular disease has become the cause of severe nausea and vomiting, you should immediately call an ambulance or take the child to the hospital yourself.
- Traumatic brain injuries and concussions of the brain have a strong influence on the general well-being of the victim and often lead to the appearance of a vomiting reflex.
Also, overeating, too fatty or fried foods can provoke nausea and vomiting in a baby. To avoid an unpleasant condition in a child, parents should closely monitor its diet and never force-feed. The urge to vomit may appear during trips on water or land transport, in stressful situations, due to sun or heat stroke.
First Aid Child
The first thing that should be done when vomiting occurs in children is to call an ambulance. Until the moment of her arrival, the child should be under constant adult supervision, especially if he has fallen asleep, because a sleeping child may choke on vomitus. To avoid this, you should put the baby on its side or reclining.
If the child has poisoning, you can relieve the baby’s condition on your own by washing the stomach. At home, the procedure is carried out using activated charcoal, which is diluted in warm boiled water (1 tablespoon of crushed medicine per liter of liquid). The patient must drink the maximum possible amount of the mixture.
If vomiting has not resumed after this, it should be called up by pressing on the root of the tongue. Manipulations are performed every half hour until the vomit becomes clean. After all procedures, the baby is desirable to put in bed. The urge to vomit can disappear completely, but it is possible to repeat them. Regardless of the results of self-help child should be shown to a specialist.
In case of poisoning
The baby may be poisoned by poor-quality or spoiled food, medicine or not intended to be consumed with substances. The children's body seeks to get rid of toxins with the help of an emetic reflex. Sometimes, if the child is poisoned, gastric lavage is required, but in some cases medication is enough. The following drugs are usually prescribed:
- Mezim Forte and Pancreatin are given only with food poisoning. They stimulate the production of pancreatic enzymes. These tablets must be consumed entirely, because when grinding or dividing into several parts, the protective shell is broken, which does not allow the enzymes to reach the patient's intestines in the right quantity. Because of this feature, the medicine is not given to children under the age of 1-2 years, since they are not able to swallow the whole pill.
- Creon 10000 is an analogue of Mezim and Pancreatin, but is produced in the form of capsules, inside which there are granules with the active substance (we recommend reading: instructions for use of the drug "Creon" and the dosage for children up to a year). This tool is suitable for kids, because the contents of the capsule can be added to pureed food or milk.
- Mothilium not only suppresses emetic urges, but also stimulates intestinal motility, due to which toxic substances are eliminated from the body more quickly. The drug is available in suspension and in pill form. Tablets are designed for children over 5 years. Syrup is used for all age categories. Quickly removing the symptoms of poisoning, Motilium does not reduce the toxic action of a toxic substance.
- Activated carbon or drugs based on it (Carbactin, Sorbex, Carbolen, Ultra-Adsorb) absorb all the harmful substances in the patient's stomach and intestines like a sponge. Children usually get white coal, because he is more effective than black. After taking this medication, the color of the baby’s feces may change.
- Sorbents, such as Enterosgel, Polyphepan, Enterosorb, Polysorb, have the ability to bind and remove toxic substances. The dosage of the drug is calculated based on the weight and age of the child.
With intestinal and other infections
Antiemetic drugs for children used in rotavirus, intestinal and other infections:
- Smecta is assigned to children from birth. The tool is absolutely safe, because made from a special grade of clay. Having an adsorbing effect, the powder eliminates not only vomiting, but also diarrhea. Smektu accept between meals. The contents of the bag must be diluted in 50 ml of warm water immediately before use. The daily dose should not exceed 3 sachets.
- Enterofuril is intended for one-year-old children and older (we recommend reading: how is Enterofuril suspension used for children?). Antiemetic effect appears immediately after taking the drug. The babies are given the agent in the form of a suspension, from 3 years old the use of tablets is allowed. The main active ingredient of the drug is nifuroxazide, which has a bactericidal and anti-inflammatory effect.
- Domperidone is available as a rectal suppository. The drug is used if oral medication is not possible due to incessant vomiting.
- Zerakal suppresses the gag reflex by blocking signals of the nervous system from the stomach to the medulla oblongata (for more information in the article: “Zerakal” in tablets with vomiting: instructions for use for children). The drug has many contraindications and side effects, so it is unacceptable to make decisions about the appropriateness of its reception. It is prescribed to children 2 years and older. Patients in serious condition, the drug is administered intramuscularly.
- Regidron helps to solve the problem of dehydration with frequent urge to vomit (more details in the article: how to apply Regidron when vomiting for children?). The drug is presented in the form of a powder that must be diluted in water (1 sachet per liter of liquid). The solution should be given to the patient after each emptying of the stomach. The recommended dosage is 2 tbsp. per kilogram of body weight.
Sorbents can be given to a child with infectious lesions in addition to antiemetic therapy. Sorbents not only help to stop vomiting, but also prevent intoxication of the body. At elevated body temperature, it is necessary to use antipyretic agents in the form of candles or make an injection.
How to deal with nausea and vomiting in a child while rocking?
Nausea and vomiting during a trip in transport appears in many babies. What to give a child with vomiting and how to alleviate his condition?
List of drugs recommended for motion sickness:
- Aeron prevents vomiting by acting on the central nervous system. Suitable for children over 7 years old. It is necessary to drink it 30 minutes before the start of the trip, drinking plenty of water. A single dose should not exceed 1 tablet, the daily - no more than 2.
- Bonin has an impact on the vestibular apparatus of the child, who is responsible for the appearance of nausea during motion sickness. The drug begins to act within an hour after ingestion. Contraindicated in patients younger than 12 years.
- Dramina, like Aeron, blocks emetic urges. Assigned to children from 3 years of age. Used both situationally and as a preventive measure. Up to 6 years, it is permissible to use 0.5 tablets at a time, older children can be given for the whole tablet.
Diet and drinking regime
Regardless of the cause of vomiting, after emptying the stomach should not give the child food. Doctors recommend waiting for 8 hours from the last attack, and only then give the baby some cereal porridge on the water, biscuits or homemade crackers. Useful kissel, which gently envelops the stomach wall, helping them recover. For several days, you should follow the diet, excluding from the child's diet all fatty, fried, spicy.
Babies need to eat every 2 hours, but feeding should last no more than 5-10 minutes. So the crumb will receive only liquid upper milk, without overloading the stomach with fatty and heavy lower ones.
You can avoid dehydration by regularly suggesting a child to drink. It is necessary that the fluid entered the patient's body constantly, in small portions (3 tablespoons). If you drink plenty of water at the same time, you can provoke a new attack of vomiting. Toddlers often refuse bottles, and the drink is injected into the mouth with a syringe or pipette.
You can fight gagging with the help of traditional medicine. The most effective ones are:
- Decoction of ginger. The root of the plant should be grated, add water and boil. The use of the resulting fluid at the first signs of nausea will allow you to avoid a new attack.
- Decoction of tansy and wormwood (in equal proportions). These plants help stop vomiting and prevent the spread of bacteria from the source of inflammation. To get the desired result, it is enough to drink several tablespoons of infusion at a time.
- Dill decoction. Pour boiling water over a teaspoon of dill seeds, boil for a few minutes. The resulting tea prevents vomiting and helps restore intestinal microflora.
What can not be done with child vomiting?
When a child begins to vomit, many parents panic and make mistakes. Invalid actions of adults often lead to a deterioration of the child's well-being.
First, mom should calm down. If the child was vomited only once, this is not a cause for serious concern. This sometimes happens when overeating or eating too fatty and fried foods. If the seizures recur, you should immediately call an ambulance or contact a pediatrician.
When uncontrolled vomiting in children is strictly prohibited:
- feed the patient, give him carbonated drinks or milk,
- give medicines without medical prescription,
- leave the baby alone, even if he is sleeping.
It is also necessary to monitor the body temperature of the child. When raising it, all possible measures should be taken to normalize it.
Causes of Vomiting
Most often, a single episode of vomiting in a child is not dangerous, since it is a protective reaction of the body to external influences. But there are times when nausea and vomiting indicate serious problems with the body.
There are many causes of vomiting in children. Here are the main ones:
- poisoning and intoxication,
- overfeeding the baby
- heat or sunstroke
- intestinal infections
- rotavirus infections
- diseases of the heart and blood vessels
- psycho-emotional over-stimulation,
- violation of the vestibular apparatus (motion sickness),
- acetonemic syndrome and so on.
Thus, it is necessary to eliminate the root cause, since it is useless and pointless to treat nausea or vomiting itself, and to combat their manifestations as part of complex therapy. It is necessary to take into account the age of the child when making a diagnosis and carrying out therapeutic measures, because the body of the infant differs significantly from that of a ten-year-old person.
First aid child
With repeated manifestations of nausea or vomiting in a child, it is advisable first of all to call a doctor at home or an ambulance. While waiting for a specialist, do not leave the baby alone, it is advisable to go to bed, make sure that the vomit does not clog the respiratory tract, as well as the cleanliness of the face and body. It is strictly forbidden to give children any medicines before the arrival of the doctor; this can only aggravate the situation. If traces of blood are visible in the vomit, apply ice to the baby’s stomach or let it dissolve a piece of ice - cold contributes to the narrowing of blood vessels and stopping internal bleeding.
When vomiting a child, parents must provide proper care and try to prevent subsequent vomiting attacks.
When not to do without drugs, and in what cases we can refrain from taking them
If the child had a single attack of vomiting from overfeeding, rocking in the vehicle, trouble occurred against the background of increased activity or with increased cough, then in these cases it is possible to do on their own without medication. It is undoubtedly worth informing the doctor about this episode, especially if there is another current disease.
The doctor is likely to prescribe the appropriate drugs if:
- the child has a pronounced intestinal infection, accompanied by fever,
- bouts of vomiting occur more than twice an hour
- the child is often nauseous when traveling in transport
- the baby has been diagnosed with diseases of the endocrine system (diabetes, etc.),
- there are disorders in the central nervous system (tumors, migraines, middle ear disease).
Overview of antiemetic drugs for children
Despite the variety of drugs from vomiting for children, their types, forms of release and components, they differ primarily in their indications, as well as restrictions on the age of the patient.
Remedies for nausea and vomiting are symptomatic, that is, they act in combination therapy. Therefore, what is written out from motion sickness in transport will not help with vomiting caused by diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, etc. The greatest effect is achieved with proper use of medicines.
The action of drugs multidirectional:
- medications for motion sickness (Dramina, Pipolfen, Aviamarin, etc.) are aimed at inhibiting the vagus nerve responsible for feeling sick, remove fear, regulate the functioning of the inner ear receptors,
- antibiotics (Sumamed, Enterofuril) and bacteriophages are needed to destroy vomiting pathogens,
- antispasmodics allow you to remove the spasm of smooth muscles of internal organs (No-Spasm, Atropine, Buscopan),
- adsorbents help to remove gases, toxins and harmful substances from the intestines (activated carbon, Smekta, Enterosgel),
- prebiotics are prescribed to normalize the work of the intestine with the help of beneficial bacteria (Primadofilus, Laktofiltrum),
- enzymes improve digestion processes (Creon 10000, Mezim Forte),
- specialized drugs of multidirectional action save from attacks of vomiting (Motilium, Zerukal),
- preparations for rehydration and detoxification (Regidron and Hydrovit) prevent dehydration, to which a small person's body is more susceptible than an adult.
In the development of drugs for children, pharmacists focus primarily on the needs and capabilities of young patients. That is why most drugs come in the form of suspensions and syrups, as well as soluble powders and chewable tablets. The dosage of preparations for children is significantly less than for adults; you should always pay attention to this if you have purchased a non-specialized remedy for treating a baby.
Правила приёма лекарств от тошноты и рвоты подробно описаны в инструкциях к применению каждого конкретного препарата. При высокой температуре тела у ребёнка жаропонижающее средство лучше вводить в виде ректальных свечей, так как сиропы могут выйти вместе с рвотными массами. Если приступ рвоты однократный, необходимо отказаться от приёма воды и пищи в течение двух часов. Vomiting caused by poisoning can be stopped by washing the stomach, and only after that give the child an antiemetic.
Indications for use
Vomiting is not a disease, but a symptom. It is important to find out why she appeared in a child. Possible causes: poisoning, problems with the digestive tract, intestinal flu, salmonellosis, head injury, rotavirus infection, acute appendicitis. Therefore, when the deterioration of well-being is to consult a doctor, in emergency cases, call in an ambulance. Only after a diagnosis can an antiemetic be given to a child. Such restrictions did not appear by chance.
If the child is poisoned or suffers from an intestinal infection, it is impossible to suppress the emetic urge. Together with the vomit, the body leaves toxins, the baby becomes easier. Stopping vomiting, you create a threat to the life of the child.
All drugs must be given only with the permission of the doctor. Remember and contraindications. So sorbents are not recommended for gastric and intestinal bleeding, with intestinal obstruction. In addition to toxins, they can remove from the body and medications that the little patient drank not so long ago.
Antiemetics should not be given to children with epilepsy, with extrapyramidal disorders. Therefore, it is important not only to inform the doctor about the symptoms of the disease that caused vomiting, but also to recall all chronic diseases, to talk about the medicines that the child is taking.
Kinds of drugs
Medicines manufactured for children differ from those intended for adults:
- dosage in tablets and other drugs is reduced,
- drugs are available in the form of a powder or gel for solution, suspension,
- many syrups are sweet, with an attractive flavor.
There are several types of antiemetic drugs:
- Drugs for motion sickness. Sometimes children in a car or a bus are tormented by nausea and vomiting due to uncoordinated work of the vestibular apparatus and organs of vision during movement. Give medication only after consulting a doctor. These drugs include: Dramina, Vertigohel, Kokkulin, Avia-More.
- Sorbents absorb and eliminate toxins from the body. When poisoning, vomiting occurs because the body tries to remove harmful substances, when they are eliminated, it stops. Popular sorbents recommended for children are Smekta, Enterosgel, Polysorb.
- Drugs that are prescribed for indigestion. Often, nausea and vomiting indicate that the child has problems in the gastrointestinal tract. To improve it, Motilium is prescribed. It not only strengthens the motility of the digestive organs, but also has an antiemetic effect. If dysbacteriosis became the cause of the occurrence of disorders, then it is necessary to take a course of probiotics and prebiotics, for example, Linex for children.
- Drugs that affect the emetic center. These medicines can be prescribed only by a doctor. They have many side effects: drowsiness, dizziness, they affect the heartbeat, breathing, eyesight. If you give your child an antiemetic before the examination, it will be more difficult for the doctor to make a diagnosis and complications may begin. In addition, these drugs will not help to cope with the disease, they remove only a symptom. These include Tsirukal, Domperidone.
- Chemotherapy drugs. They also affect the vomiting center, but block the serotonin receptors. This is Ondansetron-Teva, Kytril.
The active substance is dimenhydrinate, which blocks the central H1-histamine receptors and m-holinoblokatory. It acts on the vestibular apparatus, save from motion sickness.
Available in pill form. They begin to operate in 15-30 minutes and help within 3-6 hours. Take before meals. Children 3-6 years old give half a tablet 3 times during the day. Children from 7 to 12 years old - 2 tablets 3 times a day. Children under the year are contraindicated.
Dramina should not be given to a patient with epilepsy, convulsive syndrome, contraindicated in dermatoses, with intolerance to the components. The following side effects may occur after taking the medicine:
- allergic reactions
- weakness, feeling tired,
- difficult to concentrate
- hurts and feels dizzy
- there is a feeling of anxiety, nervousness,
- there may be trouble sleeping
- if there was an overdose, then dryness is felt, which is felt in the mouth and in the nose, breathing problems begin, the consciousness becomes confused, hallucinations appear.
This drug enhances the effect of certain drugs: atropine, neuroleptics, sedatives and sleeping drugs, tricyclic antidepressants, catecholamines, barbiturates. Do not take Dramina with ototoxic antibiotics.
Can be bought without a prescription. They cost about 150 rubles, in one tablet 50 mg, 10 pcs. Store at temperatures up to 25 degrees.
Responses are controversial, people say that the drug works, but side effects often occur: drowsiness, lethargy, headache, children can be capricious.
It has an adsorbing, detoxifying effect. Thanks Enterosgel improves bowel performance.
Sold in the form of paste and gel. A suspension is prepared from the gel. Take an hour after eating. A single dose diluted in water, in a ratio of 1 to 3, with a strong poisoning dose can be increased.
- children under one year old - half tsp, up to 6 times,
- babies from 3 to 5 years old - half art. l., up to 3 times,
- from 5 to 14 years - 1 tbsp. 3 times.
It is a safe medicine, but you should not use it in case of intestinal obstruction and intestinal atony. After ingestion, constipation may occur. It can not be taken simultaneously with other drugs, because in this case, it reduces their effect.
It is purchased without a prescription, stored at a temperature of 4 to 25 degrees, it should not be frozen, allowed to dry. It costs about 350-400 rubles. Reviews are good, many mothers say that the drug helps, acts quickly.
The active substance is domperidone. This is a remedy for vomiting that activates GI motility. It affects dopamine receptors. Drink with nausea, hiccups, vomiting, peptic ulcer, flatulence.
Available in suspension and tablets. It is allowed to children from a year, in a dosage of 2.5 ml per 10 kg of child's weight. Take 3 times a day, but half an hour before meals. You can not give for obstruction and bleeding in the digestive tract. Not recommended for severe liver disease, drink with caution in diseases of the kidneys and heart. Some have a rash after taking it, cramping in the intestines.
Sold without a prescription, stored at a temperature of 15 to 30 degrees. It costs about 600 rubles. In reviews, they often write that the drug is expensive, but there is an effect.
The active substance is metoclopramide, which blocks dopamine and serotonin receptors. Due to this passes heartburn, hiccups, accelerated gastric emptying. Helps with reflux esophagitis, ulcers, flatulence.
Sell in the form of tablets, solutions for injection. Tablets are only allowed to adolescents from the age of 14, take half a pill half an hour before meals, no more than 3 per day. If you need to stop vomiting in young children, they inject the drug intramuscularly, calculating the amount of the drug, depending on the weight of the child: 0.1 mg per kilogram of weight.
This medication has many side effects: constipation or diarrhea appears, dizziness, dizziness, dry mouth. Depression may occur. Overdose is dangerous because because of it, there are hallucinations, irritability appears, you want to sleep, consciousness becomes confused, it is possible to stop the heart or breathing. You should not, taking medicine, get behind the wheel and do work that requires concentration.
This medicine should not be prescribed with antipsychotics. Because of it, the absorption of paracetamol, tetracycline, ascorbic acid increases. Sold by prescription, stored in a dark place at a temperature not higher than 25 degrees. 50 tablets of 10 mg cost 150 rubles, 10 ampoules of 10 mg of active substance in 2 ml cost 250 rubles. The reviews are contradictory. The drug helps, but many moms are confused by its side effects, so you need to take it only as directed by your doctor.
There are many drugs that help to cope with vomiting in babies. Doctors do not allow them to apply themselves, but in severe cases, they can not do without antiemetics, facilitate the condition of the child. But before taking these pills, it is important to correctly diagnose, otherwise taking medication will only worsen the situation.
How to give first aid?
If vomiting has arisen due to the influence of external factors, then the child does not need medical assistance, as the emetic urge in such cases is only one.
You must call the doctor if symptoms appear:
- weakness, apathy,
- skin rash,
- long, periodic gagging,
- colic and diarrhea,
- pale skin
- vomit with admixture of bile, blood.
The doctor must also be called if an emetic attack has occurred in the infant.
Before the arrival of a specialist, you should try to calm the baby and give him first aid, which consists in performing actions:
- Provide baby bed rest. It should be put in a semi-vertical position, turning his head to the side. This helps to avoid vomit inside the lungs during a recurrent attack. Put a towel under your head.
- Let's crumble a large amount of drink. Drinking water should be often, but slowly and in small sips. Suitable herbal decoctions based on chamomile, mint, lemon balm.
- Infants should be positioned horizontally in their hands on their sides.
- During an emetic attack, the baby should be planted by tilting it slightly forward so that the contents of the stomach do not clog the lungs.
- Wash the stomach with plain water or a weak manganese solution.
- In order to avoid irritation of the mucous, after each attack, you should rinse the child's mouth with water, using a syringe without a needle.
- If the gagging urge is accompanied by diarrhea, then after each bowel movement it is necessary to wash the baby and change clothes.
- When vomiting is expelled with blood, the baby should be given a small piece of ice and a bag of ice wrapped in a towel should be placed on his stomach. This helps to stop internal bleeding.
Before the arrival of the doctor, it is not recommended to give the baby any medications, but if vomiting is abundant and there is no opportunity to visit the hospital, then you can give the baby Smektu, as well as the solution of Regidron.
It is necessary to call an ambulance if symptomatic manifestations are observed:
- strong colic
- hyperthermia over 38.5 degrees
- obstruction of the respiratory tract vomit.
Contact the ambulance is also necessary if there are suspicions of swallowing a foreign body, head injury.
Causes of vomiting in a child
If the baby is vomiting, then you should not immediately start to panic, because most often this phenomenon does not pose any danger to the health of the crumbs and passes very quickly after taking the medicine. But before giving this or that medicine to the baby, it is necessary to determine the cause of such emptying of the stomach.
Nausea and vomiting in children may occur due to the influence of external factors:
- improper diet, excessive consumption of fatty foods,
- motion sickness during a transport trip,
- strong excitement, stressful situation,
- excessive physical activity
- inhalation of harmful substances
If the emetic urges are caused by such reasons, then they are of a single nature, they pass independently. Repeated vomiting, supplemented by symptomatic manifestations, may indicate the presence of pathological conditions:
- rotavirus infection
- head injuries,
- CNS pathology,
- allergic reaction,
- congenital abnormalities
- intestinal infections
- food poisoning,
- intoxication of the body,
- infectious diseases accompanied by hyperthermia,
- some gastrointestinal diseases (intestinal obstruction, gastritis, appendicitis),
- the presence of a foreign object in the esophagus.
It is important to correctly determine the nature of the origin of vomiting attacks, since the specific features of the treatment of a pathological phenomenon depend on it.
What not to do?
If the baby has vomiting, it is strictly forbidden to perform actions:
- Leave the baby unattended, as it can roll onto its back and vomit will clog the airway.
- Apply a warm heating pad to the abdominal area, as this may aggravate the condition.
- Allow your baby to engage in physical activity, it will lead to increased nausea.
- Giving is. The first time is to limit the baby in food, as a meal can lead to a new attack. It is allowed to feed the child only a couple of hours after the gagging urge stopped. It is not necessary for nursing babies to stop feeding, but you need to carefully monitor the condition of the crumbs.
- Trying to stop the gagging urge or diarrhea with drugs, as the wrong medication can significantly aggravate the patient's condition.
With the appearance of abundant vomiting in the chad, one should not leave it unattended or, on the contrary, start panicking, crying, screaming. If such a situation arises, you need to act confidently, clearly and consistently, trying to soothe the crumbs.
What can be given to a baby under 1 year old?
First of all, you should remove the baby with rehydration solutions (Regidron, Hydrovit), which help prevent dehydration, and also restore electrolyte balance. The solution should be given gradually, 2-3 tablespoons every 15 minutes. As your condition improves, the amount of regidron can be increased.
With abundant vomiting with diarrhea, medication can be given:
- Smecta or Polysorb,
A good remedy for infants is No-Spasm - an anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antispasmodic medication. But the drug has a number of side effects, which is worth getting acquainted with.
Remedies for nausea for children 4 years and older
The choice of medications for vomiting for children older than 4 years of age is expanding, it is allowed to give the child the following medicines:
- enterosorbents: Polysorb, Enterosgel,
- antispasmodics: No-Shpa, Tserukal,
- antibiotics: furazolidone, ciprofloxacin,
- Antidiarrheal drugs: Bismuth, Immodium.
A wonderful remedy for emetic attacks for children 4-5 years old are Domperidone candles. But before using them you need to familiarize yourself with the instructions, since the drug has contraindications and side effects.
Poisoning drugs for children
One of the common causes of nausea and vomiting in children is food poisoning, resulting from the use of bad foods, failure to comply with the rules of personal hygiene. In case of indigestion, in addition to emetic attacks, loose stools, abdominal pain, weakness and migraines are observed.
The first thing in case of such symptoms is to wash the stomach. To do this, give the baby to drink plenty of warm water or a weak manganese solution.
If the child is poisoned, then you can deal with the problem with the help of drugs:
- Smecta, Enterosgel or activated carbon - adsorbents that help cleanse the body of toxic substances, eliminate diarrhea.
- Paracetamol, Ibuprofen - antipyretics.
- Linex, Laktofiltrum - preparations for restoring intestinal microflora, cleansing the body from harmful substances.
- Primadofilyus - dietary supplement that helps with poisoning, dysbiosis, violation of the chair.
- Mezim, Creon 10,000 - enzymes used in indigestion, nausea and vomiting.
Intoxication causes severe dehydration of the body, therefore it is necessary to give the child a lot of drinking. The best approach is plain water, non-carbonated alkaline mineral water, rehydration solutions, as well as Uzvar, rice water.
Taking antiemetic drugs is recommended only with the permission of a physician. In the absence of extreme necessity, it is not necessary to stop vomiting, since in this way the body is cleansed of toxins and pathogens.
Sorbents - drug group aimed at binding and excretion of toxic substances from the body. These are the most effective and safe means for vomiting in children, which allow the body to cope with intoxication. Medicines are suitable for children of all ages, do not have side effects. But it is impossible to take sorbents for a long time, since this will provoke the elimination of nutrients from the body.
Sorbents are recommended for the treatment of childhood vomiting:
- Smekta. Sold in the form of a powder that is diluted in a warm liquid. Smektu allowed to drink from an early age. A common side effect is constipation.
- Enterosgel The drug has the form of a gel that can be given even to newborn babies, since the drug does not affect the state of the digestive system.
- Polysorb An effective means of cleansing the body from harmful substances. Suitable for children of any age, the dosage of the medicine is selected individually, taking into account the weight of the patient. It has a high adsorption capacity, does not affect the gastrointestinal tract.
- Polyphepane It has a natural origin, does not provoke the development of side effects, can be used at any age. Another advantage of the drug is an affordable price.
Для лечения рвотных приступов у детей старше 7 лет можно воспользоваться активированным углем – доступным адсорбентом, который можно найти в аптечке почти у каждого человека.
If vomiting is a consequence of a lesion of the body with a rotavirus infection, then antiviral drugs must be prescribed. Trying to treat the intestinal flu with antibiotics or anti-ARVI drugs cannot be done, as this will only aggravate the situation. Recommended medication:
- Ergoferon. Homeopathic remedy, which is prescribed for viral, infectious diseases for children from 1 year. It has no contraindications and adverse reactions.
- Enterol. An anti-diarrheal antiviral drug that is prescribed for the treatment of diarrhea caused by infectious pathologies. Available in the form of capsules and powder, can be given to children from 1 year.
- Viferon. The drug has a beneficial effect on the cells of the body, strengthens the immune system, and also contributes to the development of antibodies to rotavirus infection.
- Acyclovir The drug is available in several forms, can be used from 2 years. Injections are allowed from the age of three months. It has a number of side effects that should be studied before use.
Antiviral medication should be selected by your doctor. Independently choose a medicine is strictly prohibited.
Vomiting in children is usually caused by the activation of viral agents, therefore antibacterial agents are not prescribed because of their ineffectiveness in this situation. Inappropriate use of antibiotics, in contrast, can lead to aggravation of the patient's condition, the accession of a secondary infection.
Antibiotic therapy can be prescribed only by a doctor if there is evidence of the bacterial nature of the pathological condition.
Children can be prescribed antibacterial drugs:
Medicines for children under 7 years are given in the form of suspensions. Sometimes it is recommended to take intestinal antiseptics: Enterofuril, Nifuroksazid.
First aid for children with vomiting at home
First of all, parents should reassure the child. It is also important to keep calm and the adults themselves, so that their panic does not frighten the baby. Next, it is important to determine whether the child needs urgent medical care.
Call the pediatrician on the house in such cases:
- Age of the child up to three years.
- Attacks of vomiting are constantly repeated throughout the day.
- Along with vomiting, a child has fever and diarrhea.
- The baby is sluggish and weak.
- The child refuses to drink.
- A rash appeared on the baby’s skin.
- In the vomit there are impurities of bile or drops or streaks of blood.
We recommend watching a video in which the pediatrician advises parents on what to do when vomiting a child:
An ambulance call is necessary if:
- In the respiratory tract of the child were vomit.
- Vomiting triggered by a foreign body in the lumen of the esophagus.
- Vomiting is one of the symptoms of a head injury.
- The child is unconscious or confused.
- The kid complains of acute abdominal pain.
- Vomiting was more than 4 times in the last 2 hours.
The safest and most popular means used for vomiting in children are sorbents. They absorb toxins and remove them from the children's body, so they are most often used for intestinal infections and various poisonings.
These drugs are approved for use in children of any age and do not inhibit the normal intestinal bacterial flora.
To the group of sorbents include such drugs:
- Activated carbon. This is the most affordable version of the sorbent, which should be kept in a home first aid kit. Due to its porous structure, this tool quickly absorbs toxic compounds and is safe for babies. The drug is represented by black tablets, the number of which is dosed based on the weight of the child.
- White coal. The sorption properties of this type of coal are much higher, so it is used in a lower dosage. In addition, this drug does not provoke constipation, but on the contrary, has a positive effect on intestinal motility. White coal is produced in tablets. Annotation to the product does not recommend giving it to children under 14 years old, but the attending physician may prescribe white coal even at an earlier age if he sees more benefit than risk from using this sorbent.
- Smecta. Such a medicine, harmless to children of any age, not only absorbs toxic substances, but also envelops the mucous membrane, protecting it from irritation. The drug is a powder bag. To prepare the suspension, it can be diluted with water, compote or a mixture, as well as mixed with baby food. The only disadvantage of Smekta is such a side effect as constipation.
- Enterosgel. This sorbent is produced in the form of a gel and is approved for use from birth. Before feeding, it is given to babies 6 times a day, 2.5 g each, mixed with water or women's milk. If a child is 1 year old, Enterosgel is prescribed 7.5 g three times a day, and a single dosage is increased to 15 g for children over 5 years old.
- Polyphepan. This preparation in the form of powder or granules contains lignin, obtained from coniferous wood. It absorbs harmful substances and normalizes the work of the digestive tract. Means can be given to children under the year a teaspoon an hour before feeding three times a day. At the age of 1-7 years a single dose is a dessert spoon, and for children over 8 years old - a tablespoon of powder, which is diluted with water or washed down.
- Polysorb MT. The basis of this drug is silicon dioxide, which is able to adsorb toxic substances. The contents of the bag are mixed with water and given to the child, adjusting the dosage according to his body weight.
- Enterodez. Such a sorbent in powder form contains povidone. A suspension is prepared from it and given to children, calculating the required dose based on the weight of the baby.
- Filtrum STI. This lignin-based preparation is available in tablets, which are crushed and mixed with water before use. Babies who have not yet turned 3 are given half a tablet, and children 4 years and older receive a whole tablet three to four times a day.
If the child has vomiting, they are usually afraid to feed him. The absence of several meals does not harm the child, but on the contrary, it is useful for intestinal illness or poisoning. However, not all children suffer fasting normally.
If we are talking about an infant, regular nutrition is important for their vital functions, so they do not take breaks in feeding babies with vomiting.
As for older children, requests for food in the periods between bouts of vomiting are advised to be met. If a child asks for food after vomiting, then he should offer it, but with some reservations:
- Portions should be small, so it is better to divide one meal into several and give food more often.
- Food the child needs to be given in a warm form.
- Preferably vegetarian dishes that will be easily digested.
- A good option would be freshly made mashed potatoes.
- Children after vomiting should not be given sweet food, since fast carbohydrates will provoke fermentation processes.
- Spicy and salty foods should also be eliminated from the diet.
- Do not offer your child after vomiting fatty or fried foods, because they will be an additional burden on the liver.
- Fresh fruit should not be given to babies, as their fiber will irritate the intestines. You can bake the child an apple, as a source of pectin.
- Dairy products are useful for babies after vomiting to restore the intestinal flora.
Pay attention to otpaivaniyu child - the most important task of every mother. Its implementation should begin even before the arrival of the doctor, since dehydration due to vomiting can be dangerous for young children. Crumbs should be given a small amount of liquid (a teaspoon or a few sips) every five minutes.
If the baby is throwing up drinking, otpaivanie continue. If a child wants to drink more, he should be given as much liquid as he can drink.
The approximate amount of drink that a child needs to give after vomiting is calculated based on his weight. - the mass in kilograms is multiplied by 75. So many milliliters of liquid are given to the baby within 4 hours after an attack of vomiting.
The best option for drinking vomit for children are rehydration solutions. They help to restore the balance of fluid and salt in the children's body, disturbed by an attack of vomiting. The most famous solutions are Oralit, Re-salt, Regidron. If they were not in the home first-aid kit or the nearest pharmacy, the mother can make a similar liquid on her own, pouring 2 tbsp of water into a liter of water. spoons of sugar, 1 teaspoon of salt, and 1 teaspoon of soda.
Children who refuse rehydration solutions can be offered any other drink. It can be weakly brewed tea, mineral water without gas, fruit compote, decoction of wild rose berries, infusion of raisins or other dried fruits.
The temperature of the proposed liquid crumbs should be close to the baby's body temperature, then it will be absorbed faster in the digestive tract and will not provoke repeated vomiting. If a son or daughter does not want to drink, try to persuade the child, because with a categorical refusal to drink, the only way to avoid dehydration is hospitalization.
Before considering the drugs that help stop vomiting, it is important to note some features of their use. First of all, only a doctor should prescribe an anti-emetic drug.
It is unacceptable to purchase the tool yourself and give the baby after reading the instructions. First of all, due to the frequent occurrence of side effects from taking any anti-emetic medication. Since the agents of this group mainly act on the central receptors responsible for the gag reflex, they can cause dizziness, drowsiness, problems with eyesight, breathing, rhythm of heartbeats, and many others.
It is equally important to understand that anti-vomiting drugs cannot cure its cause, but only affect the symptom itself. If an antiemetic drug is given before the arrival of the doctor, it will be more difficult for the pediatrician to make a diagnosis, as well as to estimate the volume and nature of the vomit mass released during the attack.
It is equally important to understand that anti-vomiting drugs cannot cure its cause, but only affect the symptom itself. If an antiemetic drug is given before the arrival of the doctor, it will be more difficult for the pediatrician to make a diagnosis, as well as to estimate the volume and nature of the vomit mass released during the attack.
Overview of Anti-Vomiting Medicines
Zeercal. Such a drug, whose active substance is metoclopramide, acts on the emetic center and blocks it. The drug is available in tablets and ampoules. It is intended for children over 2 years old. The liquid form of Cerukul can be taken orally or be given an intramuscular injection. The dosage of the drug is determined by the doctor.
Motilium. This medicine helps to normalize the work of the digestive tract, therefore it is used for nausea, heartburn, bloating, vomiting and colic. It is produced both in tablet form (in the shell and for resorption), and in suspension (it is convenient to give it to young children). The active substance of the drug is domperidone, which suppresses the activity of the vomiting center and accelerates the transfer of food from the stomach to the intestines. The tool is prescribed from 2 years of age, and its side effects may be increased irritability and other symptoms of the nervous system. They pass as soon as the drug is stopped.
Riabal. This drug blocks the cholinergic receptors in the digestive tract, thereby reducing the tone of smooth muscles, and the secretion of digestive juices decreases. The drug is prescribed for vomiting, as well as for pain caused by gastrointestinal spasms. Syrup is approved for use in children from birth, and the tablet form - at the age of 6 years and older.
Bromopride. This antiemetic has an effect on the brain stem, and also improves gastrointestinal motility. It is represented by capsules, but is also available in candles in several dosages.
Atropine sulfate. This drug inhibits the vomiting center, and also reduces the secretion of digestive juices and lowers the tone of the digestive tract. It is presented with tablets and solution for injections or oral administration. The dosage of such a drug should be selected only by a competent doctor.
Domperidone. This drug is produced in the form of suppositories, as well as tablets for children over 5 years. It is convenient to apply candles at the expressed nausea and frequent attacks of vomiting. The dosage of the drug must be determined by the doctor, taking into account the age of the child and his weight.
Avia-Sea. This tool helps with vomiting, which is provoked by motion sickness and seasickness. The drug contains dimenhydrinate, approved for use in children older than a year.
Ondansetron. This antiemetic drug is used in chemotherapy, cytostatic therapy, and after surgery to prevent vomiting. Injections can be performed for children older than 1 month, syrup is allowed for babies older than 6 months, and tablets for children older than 2 years.